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Flashcards in Ocular Disease Deck (21)
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1

What medications are associated with the development of DES?

Anticholinergics
Antipsychotics
ADHD meds
Diuretics
B-blockers
Oral Contraceptives
Hormone Replacements
Isotretinoin

2

What is the difference between Schirmer 1 and Schirmer 2 test? What are the normal values for these tests? How long are they administered for? How does this differ from Phenol Red?

Schirmer 1 - WITH anesthetic. Measures basal, reflex, and emotional tears. Normal = Greater than 10mm
Schrimer 2 - WITHOUT anesthetic. Measures basal tears only. Normal = Greater than 5mm.
Both tests conducted for 5 minutes
Phenol Red - Cotton thread. Greater than 10 mm after 15 SECONDS!

3

What is the difference between Primary and Seconday Sjogrens? What is the most common cause of Non-Sjogren's dry eye?

Primary Sjogren's = Autoantibodies directed against Lacrimal Glands and Salivary Glands
Secondary Sjogren's = Primary Sjogren's AND another autoimmune connective tissue disease disease
MCC of Non-Sjogren's Dry Eye: Being old

4

What systemic conditions are associated with Keratoconus?

'T-DOME'
Turner Syndrome
Down Syndrome
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Marfan's
Ehlers-Danlos

5

What are the early and late signs of Keratoconus?

Early: Fleischer Ring (iron deposits)
Late: Munson's Sign (protrusion on downgaze)
Vogt's Striae (vertical lines in deep stroma)
Hydrops (Descemet's tears, edema ruptures epithelium)
Rizzuti's sign (conical reflection on nasal cornea when light is shown from temporal side)

6

What is Rizzuti's sign?

Conical reflection on nasal cornea when light is shown from temporal side

7

What is the difference between mild, moderate, and sever Keratoconus?

Mild = less than 48D
Moderate = 48D - 54D
Severe = Greater than 54D

8

What condition is associated with "kissing doves" or "crab-claws" pattern on corneal topography. Typically seen inferiorly

Pellucid Marginal Degeneration

9

What is Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome?

Systemic autoimmune disease in which the body attacks melanocytes

10

What is Behcet's syndrome?

Idiopathic, autoimmune disease in which episodes of recurrent OROGENITAL ulceration and vasculitis of small, medium, and large arteries and veins occur

11

When is an A-scan indicated? When is a B-scan indicated?

A-scan: Axial length (IOL calculation)
B-scan: Blocked fundus, diagnose ONH drusen

12

What is the most common cause of lens subluxation? What other 4 conditions are associated with this?

MCC: Trauma!
Marfan's
Ehlers-Danlos
Homocystinuria
Weill-Marhesani Syndrome

13

What organisms causes Lyme disease?
Cat-Scratch Fever?
Syphilis?

Lyme - Borrelia burgdorferi
Cat-Scratch Fever - Bartonella henselae
Syphilis - Treponema pallidum

14

What layer does Basal Cell Carcinoma affect? What layer does Squamous Cell Carcinoma affect?

BCC - Stratum Basal layer
SCC - Stratum Spinosum layer

15

What does the advanced stage of BCC look like?

Rodent Ulcer

16

What bacteria is associated with canaliculitis?

Actinomyces isreali
(canaliculitis is like the only thing this bacteria does)

17

What is Parinaud's Oculoglandular Syndrome? What is the most common cause of this condition?

MCC - Cat Scratch Fever (Bartonella henselae)
Unilateral purulent red eye, granulomatous with +Preauricular Node and +Submandibular Node

18

What is Dennie's Line? What condition is it associated with?

Dennie's Line = horizontal line under lower eyelid
Associated with Atopic Dermatitis

19

What conditions are associated with Interstitial Keratitis?

CONGENITAL SYPHILIS
Tuberculosis
Herpes Simplex

20

What is the formal difference between Non-Ischemic CRVO and Ischemic CRVO?

Ischemic CRVO includes an area of 10 DD or more of capillary non-perfusion

21

What is the difference between cellophane maculopathy and macular pucker?

Cellophane maculopathy = mild form of ERM
Macular pucker = advanced form of ERM