Flashcards in Ocular Disease Deck (21)
What medications are associated with the development of DES?
What is the difference between Schirmer 1 and Schirmer 2 test? What are the normal values for these tests? How long are they administered for? How does this differ from Phenol Red?
Schirmer 1 - WITH anesthetic. Measures basal, reflex, and emotional tears. Normal = Greater than 10mm
Schrimer 2 - WITHOUT anesthetic. Measures basal tears only. Normal = Greater than 5mm.
Both tests conducted for 5 minutes
Phenol Red - Cotton thread. Greater than 10 mm after 15 SECONDS!
What is the difference between Primary and Seconday Sjogrens? What is the most common cause of Non-Sjogren's dry eye?
Primary Sjogren's = Autoantibodies directed against Lacrimal Glands and Salivary Glands
Secondary Sjogren's = Primary Sjogren's AND another autoimmune connective tissue disease disease
MCC of Non-Sjogren's Dry Eye: Being old
What systemic conditions are associated with Keratoconus?
What are the early and late signs of Keratoconus?
Early: Fleischer Ring (iron deposits)
Late: Munson's Sign (protrusion on downgaze)
Vogt's Striae (vertical lines in deep stroma)
Hydrops (Descemet's tears, edema ruptures epithelium)
Rizzuti's sign (conical reflection on nasal cornea when light is shown from temporal side)
What is Rizzuti's sign?
Conical reflection on nasal cornea when light is shown from temporal side
What is the difference between mild, moderate, and sever Keratoconus?
Mild = less than 48D
Moderate = 48D - 54D
Severe = Greater than 54D
What condition is associated with "kissing doves" or "crab-claws" pattern on corneal topography. Typically seen inferiorly
Pellucid Marginal Degeneration
What is Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Syndrome?
Systemic autoimmune disease in which the body attacks melanocytes
What is Behcet's syndrome?
Idiopathic, autoimmune disease in which episodes of recurrent OROGENITAL ulceration and vasculitis of small, medium, and large arteries and veins occur
When is an A-scan indicated? When is a B-scan indicated?
A-scan: Axial length (IOL calculation)
B-scan: Blocked fundus, diagnose ONH drusen
What is the most common cause of lens subluxation? What other 4 conditions are associated with this?
What organisms causes Lyme disease?
Lyme - Borrelia burgdorferi
Cat-Scratch Fever - Bartonella henselae
Syphilis - Treponema pallidum
What layer does Basal Cell Carcinoma affect? What layer does Squamous Cell Carcinoma affect?
BCC - Stratum Basal layer
SCC - Stratum Spinosum layer
What does the advanced stage of BCC look like?
What bacteria is associated with canaliculitis?
(canaliculitis is like the only thing this bacteria does)
What is Parinaud's Oculoglandular Syndrome? What is the most common cause of this condition?
MCC - Cat Scratch Fever (Bartonella henselae)
Unilateral purulent red eye, granulomatous with +Preauricular Node and +Submandibular Node
What is Dennie's Line? What condition is it associated with?
Dennie's Line = horizontal line under lower eyelid
Associated with Atopic Dermatitis
What conditions are associated with Interstitial Keratitis?
What is the formal difference between Non-Ischemic CRVO and Ischemic CRVO?
Ischemic CRVO includes an area of 10 DD or more of capillary non-perfusion