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Flashcards in oncology Deck (57)
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what are some instructions should the nurse include in the client's discharge teaching plan for a patient that develops myelosuppression from chemotherapy

Chemotherapy can cause myelosuppression, which is reduced numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

1.)A client receiving chemotherapy needs to avoid people who have been vaccinated recently because an exaggerated reaction may occur

2.)Because platelet counts are reduced, the client also needs to avoid activities that could cause trauma and bleeding.

3.)The client should wash her hands frequently because hand washing is the best way to prevent the spread of infection.

4.) A client receiving chemotherapy should avoid crowded places, as well as people with colds during the flu season because she has a reduced ability to fight infection.

Signs and symptoms of infection, such as a sore throat, fever, and a cough, should be reported immediately to the physician.


lomustine (CeeNU), 100 mg/m2 as a single dose, to treat the brain metastasis. What are the major administration and excretion routes of lomustine?

The major administration and excretion routes of lomustine are oral administration and urinary excretion.


a client with bronchogenic carcinoma. Which nursing diagnosis takes highest priority?

Ineffective airway clearance related to obstruction by a tumor or secretions


a patient with a long-term central venous catheter. the nurse should

The nurse should clean the port with an alcohol pad before administering I.V. fluid through the catheter to prevent microorganisms from entering the blood stream.


for a pt with gallbladder cancer. Which nursing diagnosis may be appropriate for this client?

Anticipatory grieving is an appropriate nursing diagnosis for this client because few clients with gallbladder cancer live more than 1 year after diagnosis


After cancer chemotherapy, a client experiences nausea and vomiting. The nurse should assign highest priority to which intervention?

Administering metoclopramide (Reglan) and dexamethasone (Decadron) as prescribed

Administering an antiemetic, such as metoclopramide, and an anti-inflammatory agent, such as dexamethasone, may reduce the severity of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. This, in turn, helps prevent dehydration, a common complication of chemotherapy. The other options are less likely to achieve this outcome.


teaching plan regarding hospice care?

1.)Hospice care focuses on the control of symptoms and the relief of pain at the end of life. 2.)A multidisciplinary team — possibly consisting of nurses, physicians, chaplains, aides, and volunteers — provides the care.
3.)After the client's death, hospice provides bereavement care to the grieving family.


Horner's syndrome

which occurs when a lung tumor invades the ribs and affects the sympathetic nerve ganglia, is characterized by miosis, partial eyelid ptosis, and anhidrosis on the affected side of the face.


The client receiving a subarachnoid block requires special positioning to prevent

CSF leakage and headache and to ensure proper anesthetic distribution.


A client received chemotherapy 24 hours ago. Which precautions are necessary when caring for the client?

Chemotherapy drugs are present in the waste and body fluids of clients for 48 hours after administration. The nurse should wear personal protective equipment when handling blood, body fluids, or feces. Gloves offer minimal protection against exposure. The nurse should wear a face shield, gown, and gloves when exposure to blood or body fluid is likely.


which measure is most important for preventing the spread of infection?

Frequent handwashing


Lymphedema is a common postoperative side effect of

modified radical mastectomy and lymph node dissection


White patches and ulcers in the mouth and throat suggest

candidiasis, which is common in immunocompromised clients and in those receiving radiation therapy.


The nurse instructs the client that a diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by:

fine needle aspiration.
Fine needle aspiration and biopsy provide cells for histologic examination to confirm a diagnosis of cancer. A breast self-examination, if done regularly, is the most reliable method for detecting breast lumps early.



is used to detect tumors that are too small to palpate


Diagnostic study findings in multiple myeloma include:

Presence of Bence Jones protein in the urine almost always confirms the disease, but absence doesn't rule it out.


A transsphenoidal adenohypophysectomy is performed to treat which type of cancer?

Pituitary carcinoma


The usual treatment for vaginal cancer is

external or intravaginal radiation therapy. Less often, surgery is performed.


A client suspected of having colorectal cancer will require which diagnostic study to confirm the diagnosis?


Used to visualize the lower GI tract, sigmoidoscopy and proctoscopy aid in the detection of two-thirds of all colorectal cancers.


Radiation therapy may cause

fatigue, skin toxicities, and anorexia regardless of the treatment site.


PSA stands for

prostate-specific antigen, which is used to screen for prostate cancer.


A client has been receiving chemotherapy to treat cancer. Which assessment finding suggests that the client has developed stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth)?

The tissue-destructive effects of cancer chemotherapy typically cause stomatitis, resulting in ulcers on the oral mucosa that appear as red, open sores


Colorectal polyps are common

with colon cancer


What is the most common form of thyroid cancer in adults?

Papillary carcinoma


adverse effects of external radiation?

monitor the client for which adverse effects of external radiation?

1. Xerostomia

2. Stomatitis

5. Dysgeusia

Radiation of the head and neck often produces dry mouth (xerostomia), irritation of the oral mucous membranes (stomatitis), and diminished sense of taste (dysgeusia).


When caring for a client with multiple myeloma, the nurse should focus on

relieving pain, preventing bone injury and infection, and maintaining hydration.


the 7warning sign of cancer?

1.)Indigestion, or difficulty swallowing
2.)bowel or bladder habits
3.) a sore that does not heal,
4.)unusual bleeding or discharge,
5.)a thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere,
6.) an obvious change in a wart or mole,
7.) nagging cough or hoarseness.


The nurse should tell the client to do her self-examination:

Premenopausal women should do their self-examination immediately after the menstrual period, when the breasts are least tender and least lumpy


Testicular cancer has been linked to

cryptorchidism (failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum) appears to play a role in testicular cancer, even when corrected surgically.


What is the most important postoperative instruction the nurse must give a client who has just returned from the operating room after receiving a subarachnoid block?

The nurse should instruct the client to remain supine for the time specified by the physician.