Flashcards in Oncology Deck (26):
Cancer is the ___ leading cause of death globally.
Why are cancer death rates in the US declining?
earlier detection, improving treatment options, heightened public awareness for prevention and screening
What are intrinsic risk factors?
unable to modify or prevent:
age, heredity, hormones, immune system competence, metabolic abnormalities
What are extrinsic risk factors?
modifiable, preventable; cause of most cancer:
environmental, occupational, , lifestyle
During "mets" what ways can cancer cells spread from primary tissues to neighboring tissue?
via blood vessel, lymphatic system or transported externally (e.g. surgical tools)
Carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells are present but have not spread to neighboring tissues (preinvasive cancer)
Stage I, II, III
higher numbers indicate more extensive disease; Larger tumor size and/or spread of the cancer beyond the organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and/or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor.
the cancer has spread to another organ(s)
When treating fatigue what should you do?
treat the underlying causes and the symptoms
Breast reconstruction: TRAM flap
transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous - difficulty with trunk flexion
Breast reconstruction - DIEP flap
deep inferior epigastric perforation; no muscle cut/moved
Breast reconstruction LDMF flap
latissimus dorsi myocutaneous
What are some of the precautions post-op breast reconstructive surgery?
avoid strain on abdomen (flex position, log roll to get OOB, lift restrictions, avoid scapular retraction)
What are the most common types of genitourinary cancers?
prostate, cervix, bladder, kidneys
What is lymphoma?
cancer that begins in immune and lymphatic systems (hodgkins and non-hodgkins)
What is multiple myeloma?
cancer of plasma cells responsible for producing antibodies for immune system
What is Sarcoma?
malignant tumors of soft tissue and bone in any part of the body, but predominantly LE
What are the common "mets" for brain and spinal cord tumors?
breast cancer, lung cancer and melanomas
tumor originated in glial cells
- types: astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, ependymomas
tumors growing from meningeal layer (outer covering lining of brain and spinal cord
- 1/3 to 1/2 of all spinal cord and brain tumors
Acoustic Neuromas and Schwannomas
tumors from schwann cells that line cranial and peripheral nerves
from fetal cells in cerebellum; mostly in children under 10 years old; fast growing tumors can spread easily via CSF pathways
What are the ABCDEFs of skin cancer?
A: Asymmetry in mole
B: Border irregularity
D: Diameter >6mm
F: Feeling (sensation changes)
Hematopoietic cell transplantation
bone marrow transplant & peripheral stem cell transplantation
- treat blood disorder cancers
- rid body of cancerous cells and replace with stem cells
What does Leukopenic mean?