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Acute Care in OT > Oncology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oncology Deck (26):
1

Cancer is the ___ leading cause of death globally.

2nd

2

Why are cancer death rates in the US declining?

earlier detection, improving treatment options, heightened public awareness for prevention and screening

3

What are intrinsic risk factors?

unable to modify or prevent:
age, heredity, hormones, immune system competence, metabolic abnormalities

4

What are extrinsic risk factors?

modifiable, preventable; cause of most cancer:
environmental, occupational, , lifestyle

5

During "mets" what ways can cancer cells spread from primary tissues to neighboring tissue?

via blood vessel, lymphatic system or transported externally (e.g. surgical tools)

6

Stage 0

Carcinoma in situ (abnormal cells are present but have not spread to neighboring tissues (preinvasive cancer)

7

Stage I, II, III

higher numbers indicate more extensive disease; Larger tumor size and/or spread of the cancer beyond the organ in which it first developed to nearby lymph nodes and/or organs adjacent to the location of the primary tumor.

8

Stage IV

the cancer has spread to another organ(s)

9

When treating fatigue what should you do?

treat the underlying causes and the symptoms

10

Breast reconstruction: TRAM flap

transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous - difficulty with trunk flexion

11

Breast reconstruction - DIEP flap

deep inferior epigastric perforation; no muscle cut/moved

12

Breast reconstruction LDMF flap

latissimus dorsi myocutaneous

13

What are some of the precautions post-op breast reconstructive surgery?

avoid strain on abdomen (flex position, log roll to get OOB, lift restrictions, avoid scapular retraction)

14

What are the most common types of genitourinary cancers?

prostate, cervix, bladder, kidneys

15

What is lymphoma?

cancer that begins in immune and lymphatic systems (hodgkins and non-hodgkins)

16

What is multiple myeloma?

cancer of plasma cells responsible for producing antibodies for immune system

17

What is Sarcoma?

malignant tumors of soft tissue and bone in any part of the body, but predominantly LE

18

What are the common "mets" for brain and spinal cord tumors?

breast cancer, lung cancer and melanomas

19

Glioma

tumor originated in glial cells
- types: astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic oligodendroglioma, ependymomas

20

Meningioma

tumors growing from meningeal layer (outer covering lining of brain and spinal cord
- 1/3 to 1/2 of all spinal cord and brain tumors

21

Acoustic Neuromas and Schwannomas

tumors from schwann cells that line cranial and peripheral nerves

22

Medulloblastomas

from fetal cells in cerebellum; mostly in children under 10 years old; fast growing tumors can spread easily via CSF pathways

23

What are the ABCDEFs of skin cancer?

A: Asymmetry in mole
B: Border irregularity
C: Color
D: Diameter >6mm
E: Evolution
F: Feeling (sensation changes)

24

Hematopoietic cell transplantation

bone marrow transplant & peripheral stem cell transplantation
- treat blood disorder cancers
- rid body of cancerous cells and replace with stem cells

25

What does Leukopenic mean?

low WBCs

26

What does neutropenic mean?

low neutrophil count (most abundant WBC; most important indicator of infection risk)