Flashcards in Quiz 2 Ortho Deck (28):
What are the functions of the spine?
- provide support and structure to head and extremities
- stabilize the body for function and movement
- protect spinal cord
excluding atlas and axis, attach to each other via symphyses
provide sites for attachments of ligaments na muscles
- transverse: lateral
- spinous: posterior
opening formed by notches
What is the function of the Intervertebral Disc?
- shock absorbers
- prevent rubbing
What happens to your spine when your in a posterior tilt?
flattened or reversed lumbar curve
exaggerated anterior pelvic tilt affects lumbar curve
exaggeration of thoracic curve (hunched back)
curvature of the spine in coronal/frontal plane
Degenerative disc disease
- aging and damaged discs (water content decreased); cannot cushion well
- occurs most in cervical and lumbar regions
What are the causes of Degenerative disc Disease?
- natural loss of blood supply
- cig smoking
- occupational (heavy lifting)
What is spinal stenosis? What is it caused by?
- narrowing of spinal canal
- caused by: bulging or herniated discs; overgrowth of bone
What are the results/symptoms of spinal stenosis?
- may irritate or compress spinal cord or nerve roots (usually cervical or lumbar)
- can cause pain, numbness, weakness in legs, buttocks, arms and neck (dep. on location)
What is the difference between a disc herniation and bulge?
- herniation: "not contained" tear or rupture
- bulge: "contained" protrusion into the spinal canal
anterior sliding of one vertebra over another (most common in the lumbar region)
what are the symptoms of spine spondylolisthesis
back or butt pain; radiating pain, numbness/weakness, difficulty walking, increased pain when bending or twisting, loss of bowel or bladder control
What is the difference between stable and unstable vertebral fractures?
- stable: don't cause spinal deformity or neurologic problems; still able to function
- unstable: can progress further, may cause deformity, cannot carry/distribute weight
lamina is removed
removal of herniated disc pressing on nerve root; put in a spacer
eliminates unwanted movement caused by instability of the vertebrae
What are the classifications of pelvis fractures?
- Stable: one breakpoint in pelvic ring; min hemorrhage, pelvis in place
- Unstable: 2+ breakpoints, mod hemorrhage, pelvis unstable
- Open: open skin wound
- Closed: no open skin would
Non-weight Bearing (NWB)
no weight on affected leg
Toe-touch Weight Bearing (TTWB)
touch the floor only for balance on your affected leg
Partial Weight Bearing (PWB)
when you walk or stand you may place 30 - 50% of your body weight on your affected leg
Weight bearing as tolerated (WBAT)
when walking or standing place as much weight as feels comfortable on affected leg
full weight bearing (FWB)
you may place your full body weight on your affected leg when you stand or walk
What are the rotator cuff muscles?