Flashcards in Operant Conditioning Deck (15):
What is operant conditioning?
Voluntary behaviours are shaped by rewards and punishments.
What is positive reinforcement?
When something desired is given to encourage repetition of behaviour
What is negative reinforcement?
When something undesired is taken away to encourage repetition of a behaviour
What is positive punishment?
When something undesired is given as a consequence of a behaviour
What is negative punishment?
When something desired is taken away as a consequence of a behaviour
What is primary reinforcement?
Using a reward which meets a basic need
What is secondary reinforcement?
Using rewards that in themselves aren't a basic need but can be used to satisfy basic needs
What is fixed interval schedule?
When a reward is given at fixed time intervals
What is variable interval schedule?
When a reward is given at various time intervals
What is fixed ratio schedule?
When a reward is given every so many responses
What is variable ratio schedule?
When a reward is given after different numbers of the behaviour are displayed
Evidence for Operant conditioning
- Skinner's Box
- Specially designed cage with rat with pellets as rewards and electric shocks as punishments to teach a rat to press a lever.
What is behaviour modification?
Make person aware of the consequences of their behaviour and gradually changing their behaviour to reach the desired outcome.
What is shaping behaviour?
When you reward each step towards the desired behaviour.