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Flashcards in Social learning theory Deck (25):
1

What is social learning theory?

People learn behaviours by observing other people, particularly those who they look up to

2

What are the key stages of social learning?

- modelling
- observation
- imitation
-vicarious reinforcement (seeing someone else receive rewards for their behaviour can motivate people to behave a certain way)

3

What is attention?

The learner pays attention to the important parts of the behaviour being observed

4

What is retention?

The important details of the observed behaviour are stored in the learners memory

5

What is reproduction?

Once the modelled behaviour is in memory it will be reproduced

6

What is motivation?

likelihood of a person repeating the behaviour will depend on the reinforcements which will follow the behaviour

7

Bandura 1961 : Aim

To investigate if children will imitate verbal and physical aggression from an adult role model.

8

Bandura 1961 : Sample

- 72 children ( 36 boys, 36 girls)
- mean age 4 years 4 months
- Standford university nursery
- matched on pre existing aggressiveness rated on 5 point scale

9

Bandura 1961 : Procedure

- 24 children watched a male/ female model playing with tinker for 1 minute before behaving aggressively towards bobo doll.
- 24 children were exposed to non aggressive model who played quietly for 10 minutes
- 24 were used as control group and not exposed to any model
- aggression arousal ( children taken to room with attractive toys and told other children deserve them more)
- test for delayed aggression (exposed to aggressive and non aggressive toys . Children were in room for 20 minutes and observed through one way mirror. Observations made at 5 second intervals.

10

Bandura 1961 : Results

- Boys reproduced more physical aggression, verbal aggression and gun play more than girls when exposed to male model

11

Bandura 1961 : Conclusions

Support social learning theory as suggest children learn behaviours such as aggression through observation learning.

12

Bandura 1963 : Aim

To investigate if observing aggression in films will result in different levels of imitation than observing live models

13

Bandura 1963 : Sample

- 96 children (48 boys, 48 girls)
- Standford university nursery
- Aged 3-6 years

14

Bandura 1963 : Procedure

-Three experimental groups : real life aggression, film aggresion,cartoon aggression
- mild aggression arousal
behaviours observed in one way mirror every 5 seconds for 20 minutes

15

Bandura 1963 : Results

- Children were most likely to imitate a cartoon character ( 99) whereas the real life aggression was 83

16

Bandura 1965 : Aim

Investigate the impact of vicarious reinforcement on children's imitation pf aggression

17

Bandura 1965 : Sample

- 66 children (33 girls, 33 boys)
- aged between 3.5- 6 years
- Standford university nursery

18

Bandura 1965 : Procedure

- Model rewards with soft drink or model punished (hit with newspaper)
- Children watched Tv show for 5 minutes of model behaving badly towards a bobo doll and giving 4 distinctive aggressive responses ( sitting on the doll, hitting the doll, kicking the doll and throwing rubber balls at the doll)
- Children taken into room left to play with bobo doll, observed through one way mirror for 10 minutes

19

Bandura 1965 : Results

- Significantly higher number of imitative responses were recorded when model was exposed to model rewarded

20

Bandura 1965 : Conclusion

- Many variables affect behaviours including observed consequences

21

Becker 2002 : Aim

Assess impact of novel and prolonged exposure to television on eating behaviour and attictiudes

22

Becker 2002 : Sample

- 128 adolescent girls (63 in 1995 and 65 in 1998)
-mean age 17
- native Fijians and fluent English speakers
- Written informed consent

23

Becker 2002 : Procedure

-Quantitative data collected by participants completing EAT26 questionnaire about eating habits, score of 20 or above was considered high
-Additional interview questions about use of television
- Qualitative data included narratives about feelings since introduction of tv
-In 1998, asked additional questions eg ' do you ever think you look too big or too fat?'

24

Becker 2002 : Results

- 1995 reported self induced vomiting to control weight 0% 1998 11.3%
-1995 felt too big or too fat (no data) 1998 74%

25

Becker 2002 : Conclusions

Links changes to increase in tv watching and subsequent identification with media models