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Flashcards in Classical Conditioning Deck (14):

What is classical conditioning?

A conditioned stimulus paired with a unconditioned stimulus until the conditioned stimulus alone is sufficient to elicit the response.


Pavlov 1927 : Aim

To investigate if dogs could learn to associate a neutral of a metronome with receiving food , producing a salivation response.


Pavlov 1927 : Procedure

- Tube attached to their salivary glands
- Placed in an isolated, sound proofed room and restrained in a harness
-Fed a bowl of meat while metronome sounded


Pavlov 1927 : Results

-Dogs learnt to salivate at the sound of the metronome even when food wasn't presented with it.
- conditioned dogs started to salivate 9 seconds after hearing the metronome, by 45 seconds produced 11 drops of saliva.


Pavlov 1972 : Conclusion

Possible to condition an automatic reflex to occur in presence of neutral stimulus.


What is extinction?

Occurs when the association between the UCS and the CS no longer occurs so after a few trials of separating the two stimuli, the learned response is extinguished.


What is spontaneous recovery?

After extinction, the association sometimes recurs for no apparent reason. This produces the response that was previously conditioned.


What is stimulus generalisation?

The stimulus similar to the specific one can elicit the conditioned response.


Evaluate Pavlov's study

Generalisability - low - conducted on dogs, may not be the same in humans - disadvantage
Reliability - high - Controlled conditions - Advantage
Validity - low - Artificial setting - disadvantage
Application - Can be used to condition people to behave a certain way - Advantage


Watson & Rayner 1920 : Aim

Investigate if you could classically condition a fear response in a child towards an animal by presenting it to an infant with a loud noise.


Watson & Rayner 1920 : procedure

- Little Albert, 9 months old
- Shown white rat, monkey, rabbit and various masks
- Not afraid of animals however was afraid of loud noise
- When he was 11 months old, he was presented with with white rat and noise from a hammer was struck against steel bar.
-Each time Albert was presented the rat he would show fear responses


Watson & Rayner 1920 : Results

The unconditioned stimulus resulted in his unconditioned response.


Watson & Rayner 1920 : Conclusion

Classical conditioning can result in development of behaviours such as phobia


Watson & Rayner evaluation

Generalisability- Low - one test subject, young, male - disadvantage
Reliability - High- controlled variables - Advantage
Ethics - Low - caused trauma and developed phobia - Disadvantage
Application - can be used to develop treatments for phobias - Advantage