Classical Conditioning Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Classical Conditioning Deck (14):
1

What is classical conditioning?

A conditioned stimulus paired with a unconditioned stimulus until the conditioned stimulus alone is sufficient to elicit the response.

2

Pavlov 1927 : Aim

To investigate if dogs could learn to associate a neutral of a metronome with receiving food , producing a salivation response.

3

Pavlov 1927 : Procedure

- Tube attached to their salivary glands
- Placed in an isolated, sound proofed room and restrained in a harness
-Fed a bowl of meat while metronome sounded

4

Pavlov 1927 : Results

-Dogs learnt to salivate at the sound of the metronome even when food wasn't presented with it.
- conditioned dogs started to salivate 9 seconds after hearing the metronome, by 45 seconds produced 11 drops of saliva.

5

Pavlov 1972 : Conclusion

Possible to condition an automatic reflex to occur in presence of neutral stimulus.

6

What is extinction?

Occurs when the association between the UCS and the CS no longer occurs so after a few trials of separating the two stimuli, the learned response is extinguished.

7

What is spontaneous recovery?

After extinction, the association sometimes recurs for no apparent reason. This produces the response that was previously conditioned.

8

What is stimulus generalisation?

The stimulus similar to the specific one can elicit the conditioned response.

9

Evaluate Pavlov's study

Generalisability - low - conducted on dogs, may not be the same in humans - disadvantage
Reliability - high - Controlled conditions - Advantage
Validity - low - Artificial setting - disadvantage
Application - Can be used to condition people to behave a certain way - Advantage

10

Watson & Rayner 1920 : Aim

Investigate if you could classically condition a fear response in a child towards an animal by presenting it to an infant with a loud noise.

11

Watson & Rayner 1920 : procedure

- Little Albert, 9 months old
- Shown white rat, monkey, rabbit and various masks
- Not afraid of animals however was afraid of loud noise
- When he was 11 months old, he was presented with with white rat and noise from a hammer was struck against steel bar.
-Each time Albert was presented the rat he would show fear responses

12

Watson & Rayner 1920 : Results

The unconditioned stimulus resulted in his unconditioned response.

13

Watson & Rayner 1920 : Conclusion

Classical conditioning can result in development of behaviours such as phobia

14

Watson & Rayner evaluation

Generalisability- Low - one test subject, young, male - disadvantage
Reliability - High- controlled variables - Advantage
Ethics - Low - caused trauma and developed phobia - Disadvantage
Application - can be used to develop treatments for phobias - Advantage