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Flashcards in Ophthomology Deck (61)
1

Blurred, distorted, scotoma in central vision, white female >65, smoking HTN

Age related macular degeneration

2

Inc/Neovascularity, leaking, scaring in smoker w/ central scotoma

Exudative macular degeneration --> anti-VEGF injections

3

Multiple macular sores, atrophy, yellow Drusen deposits in smoker, central scotoma

Atrophic macular degeneration --> vitamins

4

Loss of ganglion cells, atrophy of optic disc --> cupping, impaired outflow, gradual peripheral loss

Open-angle glaucoma

5

Cupping of optic disc, gradual loss of peripheral vision

Open angle glaucoma --> Timolol, a-agonist, acetazolamide, laser

6

Low light/theater --> dilation, dec flow out of anterior chamber --> inc pressure, rigid eye, pain HA

Angle glaucoma --> dilate w/ alpha and BBs OR laser

7

Mid, fixed, dilated pupil, N/V, halos around light

Angle glaucoma --> Tonometry

8

Pain, redness, mid-dilated pupil, hard eyeball, vision loss

Angle glaucoma --> narcs, mannitol, Acteazolamide, timolol or pilocarpine - NOT ATROPINE

9

Burred vision, dec night vision/glare

Cataract

10

Focal, U/L blotchy redness induced by valsalva

Subconjuctival hemorrhage - resolves

11

Crusty discharge on lashes (anterior) or hyperemic lid w/ telengiectasias (posterior)

Blepharitis = SA --> lid scrubs, warm compress

12

Redness, irritation, dull ache of lining beneath sclera, ?auto-immune, assoc w/ IBD & RA

Episcleritis - resolves, NSAIDs help

13

Deep eye pain, redness, pain palpating eye, assoc w/ RA

Scleritis = emergency --> ophtho STEROIDS

14

Circumcorneal injection, blurred vision, constricted pupil, assoc w/ sarcoid, Reiter, ankylosing, IBD

Anterior uveitis/iridocyclitis --> optho

15

Pain, constricted pupils, kertic precipitates "Mutton fat," iris nodules

Uveitis

16

Transient monocular vision loss "curtain," curtain comes & goes, white areas near arteries cause?

Amaurosis fugax = retinal cholesterol emboli --> carotid duplex

17

Sudden vision loss in 1 eye upon waking

Central retinal vein occlusion

18

Sudden vision loss in 1 eye, retinal hemorrhage, dilated veins, cotton wool spots

Central retinal vein occlusion

19

Several episodes of painless vision loss, HTN, HLD, DM, carotid bruit, retina whitening

Central retinal ARTERY occlusion ---> ocular massage & Carbogen or hyperbaric O2

20

Sudden painless vision loss, optic disc pallor, red fovea, boxcar segmentation

Central retinal ARTERY occlusion --> hyperventilate, tPA

21

Sudden vision loss in diabetic, floaters, loss of fundus details

Vitreous hemorrhage

22

Vision loss with showers/snow storm of floaters/photopsia, elevated retina

Retinal detachment

23

MVA or HTN, Veil or curtain over eyes - stays (vs. fugax)

Retinal detachment --> Laser

24

Horizontal nystagmus in respective eye w/ ABduction, worse in hot/exercise, young female

MS --> lesion in MLF

25

AV nicking, copper wiring, exudate and hemorrhages

HTN-retinopathy

26

Vertical diplopia and extorsion

Trochlear nerve lesion

27

Convergent strabismus and horizontal diplopia

Abducens nerve lesions

28

Binocular paresthesia, fever, HA, periorbital edema, hyperesthesia in V1,2, proptosis

Cavernous sinus thrombosis ---> MRI, antibiotics

29

Red tender, swollen eyelid, watery discharge, photophobia

Hordeolum - SA --> warm compress --> histo path to r/o CA if recurrent

30

Hard painful --> painLESS rubbery lid nodule, granulomatous lesion of meibomian glands

Chalazion
-- persistence or recurrence = sebaceous carcinoma --> get HISTOPATHOLOGY

31

Rapid impaired vision, pain on eye movement, afferent defect

Optic neuritis - ASSOC w/ MS

32

S/P cataract surgery --> dec vision, exudates in anterior chamber, edematous conjunctiva

Postoperative endophthalmitis = Vitreous infection --> Abx or extraction

33

Transient vision loss w/ changing head position, enlarged blind spot, morning HA

Papiledema --> CT

34

Profuse watery eyes, hyperemia, edema of eyelids, asthmatic pt

Allergic conjunctivitis --> anti-histamine or mast cell stabilizing drops (olopatidine)

35

URI, watery discharge, fall, most common conjuctivitis, preauricular LAD

Viral conjuctivitis/pink eye --> warm/cold compress

36

Painful eye w/ purulent discharge w/ crusting

Bacterial conjuctivitis = Strep pneumo --> erythromycin, fluoroquinolone w/ contacts

37

Conjunctivitis 1st 24hrs, b/l non-purulent

Chemical (Ag-nitrate) = supportive

38

Conjunctivitis day 2-5, b/l eyelid swelling, discharge

Gonococcal --> IM//IV ceftriaxone OR topical erythromycin

39

Conjunctivitis day 5-14, u/l, some eyelid swelling, injection, mucopurulent

Chlamydia

40

Blood-stained eye discharge

Chlamydia --> ORAL Erythromycin 14d can --> hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

41

Most common blindness in world, Trachoma

Chlamydial (A,B,C) --> tetracycline or erythromycin

42

4 y/o unilateral conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, neovascularization/pannus, EGYPT

Trachoma --> topical tetracycline or oral Azithro

43

CAN move eyes, inflammation around eyes

Pericellulitis --> abx

44

Can't move eyes, inflammation around eyes

Orbital cellulitis --> CT scan --> I&D + Abx

45

Orbital cellulitis vs. preseptal

Orbital - diplopia, pain, proptosis, vision impairment --> IV Abx vs. oral

46

PAIN W/ EYE MOVEMENT, proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, diplopia

Ortibal cellilitis (d/t bacterial sinusitis) --> CT scan b/c --> abscess, blindness, death

47

Leukocoria causes

Retinoblastoma --> liver brain mets &

48

Dendritic ulcers, pain, photophobia

Herpes keratitis

49

Tearing, redness, blurred vision, hx of same sx, worse in sun, vesicles, dendritic ulcers

Herpes simplex keratitis

50

Elderly, itching, burning, malaise, vesicular rash in trigeminal, conjunctivitis, dendriform ulcers

Herpes zoster ophthamlicus --> acyclovir

51

Contacts or trauma, hazy cornea w/ central ulcer, stromal abscess, hypopyon

Bacterial Keratitis

52

Contact stuck, corneal hazy, edematous, scleral injection

Contact keratitis = PA --> perf, scarr --> blindness

53

Itchy eyes, thick mucous, photophobia, blurred vision

Atopic keratoconjunctivitis

54

Cortical blindness, strabismus, cataracts, irreversible

Amblyopia = fix b4 it occurs

55

Lazy eye, unequal light reflection

Strabismus --> surgery if at birth, glasses if acquired

56

Newborn, pure white retina

Retinoblastoma (Rb) --> surgery, never radiation --> f/u osteosarcoma

57

Newborn, white cloudy lesions in front of eye - (+) birth = TORCH, (-) birth = galactosemia

Congenital cataracts --> surgery

58

Pre-me, high load O2, growths on retina

Retinopathy of prematurity --> laser ablation

59

Assoc w/ retinopathy of prematurity

NEC, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, IVH

60

Cutting something w/o goggles, eye pain

Corneal abrasion --> copious irrigation --> Flourecin dye +/- surgery

61

Lack of corneal sensation or reflex nerve

V1