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1

Drugs that cause folic acid deficiency

Phenytoin
Trimethoprim (dihydrofolate reductase)
Methotrexate (DHFR) leucovorin rescue

2

Pruritis after shower, dizziness, headache, HTN, facial plethora, hypercellular BM

PCV
- Primary = LOW EPO, JAK2 mutation
- Secondary = Normal/high EPO, hypoxemia, renal tumor, hepatic tumor, testosterone replacement
- can precipitate GOUT attack

3

Immune-mediated drug reaction by captopril

Membranous GN

4

35 weeks gestation, HTN, dec urinary output, thrombocytopenia

Preeclampsia w/ severe features (pul edema, LFTs, SBP >160, inc Cr) --> hydralazine or labetalol then mag sulfate

5

93 y/o vaginal bleeding, odor, mass, no mets

SCC --> resect 2cm or poor surgical candidate
Combination chemotherapy stage III, IV

6

High non-response rate, use only hospital-based patients, loss of study patients type of bias

Selection bias

7

Improves mortality in CHF

*ACE*, BBs, spironolactone

8

Exudative pleural effusions

Protein >0.5, LDH >0.6 that of normal
Infection, auto-immune, neoplasm
INC CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY

9

Low TSH, high T4, T3, no signs of Grave disease, low RAIU

Facticious or exogenous thyrotoxicosis = LOW serum thyroglobulin

10

Low TSH, high T4, T3, no signs of Grave disease, high RAIU

Diffuse = Grave
Nodular = toxic adenoma or mulitnodular goiter

11

Tachycardia with buried P-waves, chest pain, diaphoresis, normal BP, hx anxiety, dizziness

SVT = Adenosine

12

Bone pain, difficulty walking, cramps, pseudofractures

Osteomalacia = INC PTH, alk phos + LOW Ca, phos, 25D-OH
- malabs, chronic liver, kidney, intestinal bypass, celiac
- #1 = vit d deficiency

13

Fever, back pain w/ local tenderness, recent UTI, NO leukocytosis, INC ESR/CRP, normal x-rays

Osteomyelitis --> MRI --> CT guided aspiration

14

White edematous retina following retinal arterioles, curtain falling over eye

Retinal emboli --> carotid doppler

15

Painless loss of vision, boxcar segmentation, cherry fovea, pallor or hyperemic disc

CRAO

16

Mallory bodies and neutrophilic infiltrate on liver bx

Alcoholic hepatitis = completely reversible w/ etOH cessation
Regenerative nodules = cirrhosis = irreversible

17

Encapsulated yeast

Cryptococcus neoformans = amphotericin B + flucytosine --> fluconazole for 1 yr
Itraconazole does NOT cross BBB

18

DOC for Lyme disease < 8/yo

Amoxicillin or cefuroxime

19

HIV pt, pancytopenia, palatal ulcers, hepatosplenomegaly, intetstitial pneumonitis

Histoplasma

20

New DOE, swelling of head, neck, arms, plethora of face, no LE edema, ascities

SVC syndrome --> CXR for NHL or lung CA

21

DVT --> heparin therapy --> 6th day new right sided weakness, aphasia, 50,000 platelets, skin necrosis, normal CT, heart RRR, no fibrin split products

HIT type 2 (antibody platelet activation)
---> binds PF4 --> IgG --> activates Fc receptor leading to platelet activation
---> ARTERIAL or venous THROMBOSIS

22

HIV esophagitis work-up

1. Candida --> oral fluconazole
2. esophagoscopy + bx, cytology, culture w/o improvement

HSV = round/ovoid ulcers + perioral ulcers
CMV = linear ulcers

23

Common findings in anorexic patients

1. Osteoporosis
2. Elevated cholesterol and carotene
3. Prolonged QT
4. Euthyroid sick syndrome
5. HPA axis - amenorrhea, anovulation, dec estrogen
6. HypoNa
7. Small for gestational age baby, intellectual impairment, miscarriage, depression, hyperemesis, c/s

24

Southern US + tick bite + thrombocytopenia + leukopenia, fever, malaise, inc LFTs, inc LDH, intracytoplasmic morulae

Ehrlichiosis --> doxycycline

25

32 w/ hx seizures, migraines, bipolar --> slurred speech, very drowsy, unsteady gait, normal resp, normal pupils, no nystagmus

Benzo overdose

26

65 w/ PNA sx + very high WBC, 84% lymphocytes w/ smudge cells."

CLL --> flow cytometry

27

RBCs 1-6hrs later fever, chills, malaise

Nonhemolytic transfusion rxn = leukoreduction (red HLA, CMV)

Anaphylaxis w/ PRBCs = IgA deficiency = wash cells 1st

28

Eczematous, itchy rash over nipple, no other hx of skin problems

Paget disease of breast = underlying adenocarcinoma

29

Truncus arteriosus, micrognathia, no thymus, cleft lip

DiGeorge = hypoCa

30

Thickening of pre-vertebral tissues, neck pain, fever next step

IV abx, IVFs & surgical drainage

31

Uncontrolled DM, weight loss, neuropathy, 3months of N/V, dec appetite

Gastroparesis ---> gastric scintography

32

1. Hepatitis uses reverse transcriptase
2. Hepatitis coats itself in LDL

1. HBV
2. HCV --> IF-a

33

Infective endocarditis bugs
1. dentition
2. IVDU
3. UTI

1. HACEK group, strep viridan/sanguis
2. SA, staph epi/CoagN
3. Enterococcus faecalis

34

Tx of hypercalcemia

Asx = avoid thiazides, lithium, dehydration
Sx = nothing immediate or see severe
Severe/malignancy = NS + calcitonin short term --> zoledronic acid long term
Granulomatous = steroids to reduce VitD

35

Shoulder dystocia --> extended forearm, MCP, flexed PIP/DIPs, horner syndrome, ABSENT grasp reflex

C8, T1 injury = Klumpe's palsy
---> massage and gentle PT

36

COPD w/ inhaled salmeterol, duonebs, theophylline --> recent URI w/ cipro --> HA, N/V, insomnia, multifocal atrial tachycardia

Theophylline toxicity --> check serum level

37

1st febrile UTI <24mo work-up

7-14d abx
renal and bladder US (also if recurrent or do not respond to abx)

38

Physiology of CHF w/ peripheral edema

Dec circulating BV --> inc angiotensin & aldosterone release --> *constrict renal arterioles* & reabsorb salt and water --> increased BV which exacerbates CHF further

39

Muscle aches and pains, HIGHLY ELEVATED CPK, mild elevation in LFTs

Stop statins - muscle injury --> rhabdomyolysis & RF

40

Hazard ratio >1

More likely to occur in tx group
1 = no difference
<1 = more likely in control

41

Teen, gradual difficulty walking, speech problems, falling down, scoliosis, hammer toes

Freidrich ataxia
- Cardiomyopathy --> death

42

Gestational bleeding
1. HTN, contractions
2. Painless, C/S, smoking, multiple gestation
3. Painless bleeding + rapidly deteriorating fetal tones

1. Abruption
2. Previa
3. Vasa previa

43

Young obese female on OCPs, steroids, Vit A, tetracycline, has dull HA for 3 weeks, papilledema

Benign intracranial HTN --> blindness
1. weight reduction, *acetazolamide* then shunt and optic nerve fenestration

44

A.A. woman with pelvic heaviness + constipation + urinary frequency and posterior uterine mass and enlargement and HEAVY, prolonged periods WITHOUT spotting

Uterine leiomyoma/fibroid

45

Hypotension, bradycardia, cold, clammy, AV block - unresponsive to IVFs and atropine

Glucagon
- BB overdose (w/ wheezing), CCBs

46

A.A. male w/ fam hx of fatal blood disorder, recurrent otitis media, HAV --> nocturia, frequency

Hyposthenuria - sickling in vasa recta impairs water re-absorption

47

HSM, anemia, thrombocytopenia, night sweats, HA, dizziness, visual problems, pain and numbness in extremities, IgM spike

Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
- MM have IgG or IgA
- MGUS = Asx

48

Winter's formula for acid-base compensation

PCO2 = 1.5 (HCO3-) + 8

49

Post- transplant fever, chills, sputum production + RLL consolidation + branching, beaded gram + rods

Nocardiosis (partially acid-fast) ---> TMP-SMX

50

Anterior MI + muffled heart sounds, S3, bibasilar crackles and dyspnea next step

Flash pulmonary edema --> lasix --> dec preload, pulm capillary pressure

Avoid BBs in this setting

51

When can exposure odds ratio from a case-control study = relative risk?

Prevalence of disease is low

52

S/P CABG with ventricular rhythm narrow QRS irregular tachycardia, hypotensive

AFIB --> DC cardioversion

53

Failure to pass meconium, 1st step XR --> marked bowel dilation & r/o pneumoperitoneum next step

Contrast enema --> microcolon for CF --> Gastrografin enema

54

Central/above pons Facial nerve palsy vs. peripheral/below pons

Central = CL weakness + preserved forehead, eyebrow, eyelid function

55

Co-morbidities in Turner syndrome

Osteoporosis
Coarctation of aorta

Congenital lymphedema (non pitting), short 4th digit, nail dysplasia, horseshoe kidney

56

Young male anterior mediastinal mass + bHCG + AFP

NON-seminimatous germ cell tumor (AFP+)

57

Acyclovir + acute renal failure cause

Insoluble --> crystalluria --> renal tubular OBSTRUCTION

58

Mood disorder and paranoia, hallucinations --> mood improves but paranoia remains

Schizoaffective disorder

59

Tx OCD

SSRIs

60

When to hospitalize anorexic pt

Dehydration, hypoK, hypoPhos, bradycardia, severe weight loss ---> refeeding syndrome w/ electrolyte abn, arrhythmia and heart failure

61

Tx in anorexia and bulimia

1st is nutritional and CBT
Buproprion is CI d/t SEIZURE

anorexia = olanzapine
bulimia = SSRI

62

Dysparenunia, dysmenorrhea, DYSCHEZIA, cyclical pelvic pain, infertility, CMT

Endometriosis --> OCPs + NSAIDs

Unrelieved --> laparoscopy

63

Precursor to GB adenocarcinoma

Porcelain gallbladder

64

Cyanotic infant w/ LEFT axis deviation, no R waves in precordial leads, dec pulmonary markings, tall peaked P waves, LLSB holosystolic murmur

Tricuspid valve atresia

65

Conservative vs. laparoscopy in SBO

Laparoscopy
- tachycardia, leukocytosis, fever, acidosis, peritoneal signs

66

Inc QRS from 0.8 --> 0.13 with inc HR during stress test result of what drug?

Flecainide
- ventricular arrhythmia and SVTs like AFIB
- use-dependence block of Na channels

67

Post-partum patient, fever, chills, WBC 11,000, uterus firm, non-tender, bloody discharge with clots --> pale --> yellow/white next step

Reassurance
- lochia foul smelling = endometritis
- fever normal in first 24hrs or so

68

HL treated 20 years ago w/ chemo and radiation --> now circular mass on xray dx?

Secondary malignancy
- also breast, thyroid, bone, GI

69

Russian immigrant, fatigue, cough, fever, weight loss, upper lung lesion + hyperNa, hypoK, hypoglycemia, eosinophilia acid-base abnormality?

Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis d/t primary adrenal insufficiency

70

Mechanism of hypoxia in pt with AIDS, interstitial crackles

PCP --> Dec A-a oxygen gradient

71

HIV pt with hearing loss + dull hypomobile TM

Serous/non-infectious otitis media
- HIV LAD or obstructing lymphoma

72

Manic episode on Lithium + high-risk behaviors, no drug use

Anti-psychotic + hospitalization --> check lithium level

73

Tx duodenal hematoma

NG tube + TPN ---> resolves in 1-2wks

74

2x2cm midline, hard, non-mobile mass on hard palate, no drug use

Torus palatinus = congenital

75

Lack of fetal movement felt for 2 days next steps + no doppler tones

Ultrasound for fetal heart movement --> autopsy to identify cause

76

SLE on prednisone, normal menstruation, monomorphous pink papules w/o comedones

Steroid acne

77

U/L cervical adenitis in kid, no pet or TB exposure = tx?

I&D + Clindamycin
- staph and strep #1

78

Kid w/ fever, nasal discharge, fatigue + 2+ urine protein, no other abn

Repeat dip w/ >2 specimens
Normal proteinuria in kids - fever, exercise, stress, dehydration

79

Prevent hemorrhagic cystitis w/ chemo

Mesna = d/t cyclophosphamide

80

HSM, cervical LAD, hypotonia, regression of milestones, cherry red macula

Niemann-pick = sphingomyelinase

Tay-sachs = Hyperacusis and seizures

81

Wide matching QRS complex @ 100bpm following MI, stable patient next step

Sustained monomorphic V-tach
- stable = amiodarone
- unstable = cardioversion

If narrow PSVT = carotid massage, cold water immersion = affects AV node conductivity

82

Precocious puberty, large cafe-au-lait spots w/ irregular borders, multiple bone defects, moon-like face

McCune-Albright
- Precocious puberty
- Pigmentation
- Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia

83

DMARD SEs
1. MTX
2. Hydroxychloroquine
3. TNF-a

1. Liver, oral ulcers/stomatitis, cytopenia, alopecia

2. Retinopathy

3. Infection/TB, malignancy, CHF

84

HIV + acid-fast oocysts in stool + diarrhea

Cryptosporidium parvum >>> Isospera belli

85

How to unmask confounding variables

stratified analysis - etOH vs. non-etOH vs. smoking and non-smoking --> cirrhosis

86

Watery diarrhea, flushing, valvular heart disease

Carcinoid syndrome
- tryptophan --> serotonin production in carcinoid INSTEAD of ---> NIACIN

87

Pyogenic liver abscess bug

Bacteroides

88

Test sensitive for rotator cuff pathology besides arm drop

Neer test - affected limb's hand to opposite should and raise elbow --> pain --> inject lidocaine for relief

89

Kid DM-1 + weight loss, low MCV anemia, erythematous vesicles on extensor surfaces, stool occult (-)

Celiac - anti-tissue transglutaminase ab

90

#1 complication of sickle cell TRAIT

Hematuria
- also isothenuria --> polyuria, nocturia

91

Tx endometritis

Polymicrobial = Clinda + Gent

92

Re-warm frostbite

Warm water

93

#1 injury in supracondylar fx

Brachial artery

94

Chronic HA + painless hematuria cause?

Papillary necrosis d/t analgesic nephropathy - vasoconstriction in vasa recta

95

Address anxiety by substituting behavior that is the exact opposite of own unacceptable feelings

Reaction formation

96

Double vision after reading, cramps in jaw after chewing a steak, voice/throat funny after talking on the phone for a while, normal CPK, normal reflexes

Myasthenia gravis --> CT chest to r/o thymoma

97

Signs of cholinergic toxicity/organophosphate poisoning

Bradycardia, miosis, fasciulations, salivation, lacrimation, diarrhea, urination ---> atropine & remove clothing

98

Older man w/ back pain w/ normal exam + anemia, Inc Cr, Inc Ca, Inc ESR, Inc total protein w/ normal albumin

Multiple myeloma --> serum immunoelectrophoresis

99

Nagging epigastric pain + weight loss, jaundice, food intolerance, enlarged non-tender GB

Pancreatic CA = dilation of intra and extrahepatic ducts

100

Cafe au lait, macrocephaly, feeding problems, optic glima, short stature and learning disabilities

NF-1

101

Number needed to treat

1/ARR

102

S3

Elevated LV filling pressure = CHF

103

Homeless man hematuria, flank pain, ARF, hypoCa, metabolic acidosis

Ethylene glycol intoxication --> fomepizole

104

Inc leukocyte alkaline phosphatase

Leukemoid rxn d/t infection or inflammation

105

1st step in torticollis?

XR to r/o AA subluxation, retropharyngeal abscess

106

Prurititis at night in middle aged woman, destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, IgM, xanthelasmas

PBC = anti-mitochondrial abs ---> UDCA

107

20+ yr Ankylosing spondylitis + fall --> severe back pain dx?

Vertebral fx

108

Hypertonia, hyperreflexia in legs b/l, feet pointing down and in in newborn infant

Cerebral palsy = PREMATURITY infection, hemorrhage, drug esp in pt with no dystrophic features

109

HA, retro-orbital eye pain, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention in Parkinson pt d/t what med?

Trihexyphenidyl - anti-cholinergic excess with acute glaucoma

110

Complication following infectious mononucleosis

Auto-immune hemolytic anemia & thrombocytopenia d/t IgM cold agglutinin + anti-I antibodies (Coombs +)

111

Test for lactose intolerance

Hydrogen breath test

112

Hexagonal urine crystals + positive urine nitroprusside

Cystinuria - amino acid transport

113

IE w/ strep mutans highly susceptible to PCN drugs of choice

IV PCN G or IV ceftriaxone, NOT oral

114

Tx hypovolemic hyperNa

NS

115

External effect + or - affects outcome (family hx)

Effect modification (Vs.confounding)

116

Cough, hemoptysis, chronic purulent rhinosinusitis, ulcer with rolled, undermined borders on leg , RBC casts, protienuria

Wegeners - cyclophosphamide

117

Flank pain w/ crohn disease or other fat malabsorption syndrome

Hyperoxaluria - Ca binds excess fat in gut and not oxalate

118

Effect of BB therapy in Pheochromocytoma

Rapid increase in BP d/t unopposed alpha vasoconstriction

119

Chest pain, NSTEMI, dilated pupils, atrophic nasal mucosa

Cocaine use --> benzo then aspirin, nitrates and CCBs

BBs are CI

120

PPx for uric acid stones

Hydration
Potassium citrate to alkalinize urine

121

Sequelae of seizures >5 min, status epileptics, recurrent seizures etc

Cortical atrophy/laminar necrosis - hyper intensity on MRI

122

Spherocytosis
+ Coombs
- Coombs

Auto-immune hemolytic - warm (IgG)
Hereditary - osmotic fragility

123

Leukocytosis, inc segmented neutrophils, bands, older woman w/ weight loss & night sweats

CML = LOW leukocyte alkaline phosphatase + Philadelphia Chr

124

Hearing loss, tinnitus, hold cell phone in other ear, EAR FULLNESS, spinning for 1-2hrs

Meniere disease - endolymph, inner ear disease

125

Kidney finding w/ HBV

Membranous

126

Cause of distended bowels s/p vertebral fx or retro peritoneal hemorrhage, absent bowel sounds

Paralytic ileus

Pseudo-obstruction = only large bowel dilated, tympanic hyper bowel sounds

127

Inc ventricular wall thickness w/ normal dimensions, easy bruising, normotensive, protienuria, waxy thickening of skin + diastolic CHF

Amyloidosis - tissue bx abd fat pad

128

Precocious puberty or regression of menopausal sx + bleeding + estrogen producing (breast, hair development) U/L solid pelvic mass

Granulosa cell tumor

Sertoli-leydig produce masculinization

129

Pre-menopausal woman done having children w/ complex hyperplasia w/o atypia next step?

Cyclic progestin

130

Psoas abscess 1st step?

CT abd

(-) CT --> laparoscopy
Percutaneous drainage
Hematogenous spread from skin = SA

131

HOCM murmur and tx

INC w/ standing or valsalva = dec VR/preload
Tx = BBs or diltiazem to slow HR and prolong diastole for better filling

132

Broad flat t-waves, U-waves, ST-depression, weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps cause

HypoK

133

Isolated systolic HTN cause

Rigid arterial walls/decreased elasticity

134

anti-CCP abs

RA

135

HIV, A.A, nephropathy

FSGS

136

HBV nephropathy

Membranous

137

HCV, jaundice, confused, lowNa and K, Normal UA, Cr 3.5 --> NS bolus has no chg in Cr

Hepatorenal syndrome --> infection, hemorrhage & death

LIVER TRANSPLANT

138

Tx HyperNa

Euvolemic = water
Hypovolemic = NS then D5W

139

Mech of CO hypoxia, acidosis

Dec DELIVERY of O2 to tissues - unable to unload O2

140

Young school teacher w/ acute symmetric b/l arthritis of MCP, PIP, wrists, knees, morning stiffness 10-15min

B19 infection

141

Tx acute HBV

Normal = IF-a
W/ HIV not on therapy = IF-a + emtracitabine + tenofovir
W/ HIV on therpay = lamivudine + adenofovir

142

Next step w/ LSIL

25-29 = colpo
>30 = HPV --> colpo of +

143

Human & animal bite drug tx

Augmentin
Clinda + cipro if allergic

144

RAIU findings w/ hyperthyroidism
1. Heterogenous
2. Homogenous
3. Focal
4. NO uptake

1. Toxic multinodular/Plummer's disease
2. Grave
3. Functioning Adenoma
4. Facticia or exogenous like struma ovarii or subacute thyroiditis

145

Cause of type 1 RTA

Non-anion gap metabolic alkalosis
Seen in Sjogren syndrome --> kidney stones

Distal tubule can't excrete H+ --> high urine pH >5.5

146

Cause of type 2 RTA

Non-anion gap metabolic alkalosis

Proximal tubule can't re-abs PHOSPHATE, normal urine pH

147

Cause of type 4 RTA



Can't secret K+ = lost effect of aldosterone --> HYPOTENSION

148

Nail finding w/ psoriasis

Onycholysis

149

Thin concave nails w/ raised ridges cause

Koilonchyia - iron deficiency

150

Work-up for Neutropenic fever

Blood, urine, sputum cultures & CXR --> Pip/tazo

Fever after abx = fungal --> amphotericin B

151

Poisonings
1. HA, convulsions, GARLIC breath
2. Bitter almond breath
3. Hyperhidrosis, narrow vision, tachy, HTN, neuropathy
4. Salivation, lacrimation, urination, blurred vision, brady

1. Arsenic
2. Cyanide --> amyl nitrite or thiosulfate
3. Mercury --> succimer, dimercaprol, penacillamine
4. Organophosphate --> atropine

152

Anemia in CKD/RF/ESRD

EPO deficiency - normocytic, normochromic

<30
SE - HTN, HA, flu

153

Infusion reactions
1. F/C w/in 6hrs
2. Fever, flank pain, DIC, RF w/in 1hr
3. Fever, anemia 2-10 after infusion
4. Angioedema, RDS w/in seconds
5. Urticaria, flushing w/in hours
6. RDS, pulmonary edema w/in 6hrs

1. Febrile non-hemolytic (#1) = cytokines in stored blood
2. Acute hemolytic = ABO mismatch, + Coombs
3. Delayed hemolytic = anamnestic ab response
4. Anaphylaxis = IgA deficiency
5. Allergic = Recipient IgE
6. TRALI = donor anti-leukocyte abs

154

Erythema multiforme vs.
SJS

Erythema multiforme - follows HSV infection, sudden targetoid lesions

SJS - sulfa, NSAIDs, phenytoin, sudden targetoid lesions + MUCOSAL involvement, AMS, hypotension, conjunctivitis, fever

155

Young male, morning back stiffness, bloody diarrhea, painful nodules on shins, anemia, P-ANCA

IBD - UC

156

Whipple procedure

Pancreatic CA in head
- remove pancreas, GB, duodenum, proximal jejunum and distal stomach

157

Next step in pt with atypical glandular cells (AGC) on cervical cytology

Colposcopy + endometrial bx
- AGC much more likely to be malignant and squamous cells

158

Goal BP for ppl >60 y/o

150/90

159

Night time teeth grinding + ear pain

TMJ dysfunction

160

Zoster + Bell Palsy

Ramsay-Hunt syndrome

161

Fasted --> large meal + RUQ pain, N/V cause

Biliary colic = viscous distention

162

Fxn of hormones during pregnancy
1. hcg
2. progesterone
3. estrogen

1. Maintain corpus luteum
2. Inhibit contractions
3. Stimulate prolactin

163

Infant w/ vomiting, poor weight gain, hypoglycemia, cataracts

Galactosemia = G1P-uridyl transferase deficiency

ONLY cataracts = galactokinase

164

CT w/ multiple hypodense, non-enhancing lesions w/ no mass effect in HIV pt

PML

165

CT w/ multiple ring-enhancing lesions in the basal ganglia

Toxo

166

CT w/ solitary, weakly-enhancing ring lesion, periventricular

Primary CNS Lymphoma = EBV DNA

167

LOW RAIU causes

Subacute painless thyroiditis
Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (DeQuervain)
Iodine-induced
Levothyroxine OD
Struma ovarii

168

Age of spontaneous closure of umbilical hernia

1yr
3-4yrs, >2cm, larger = surgery

169

Enlarged rubbery goiter w/ anti-TPO abs sequelae?

Hashimoto --> LYMPHOMA
- suspect w/ rapid enlargement of thyroid, compressive sx, pseudocystic pattern on US

170

Conditions w/ inc BUN/Cr

Pre-renal renal failure
GI bleed
Steroids

171

Restrictions in exercise when pregnant

Multiple gestation, previa, aburption, fluid leak, preeclampsia

No contact, high fall risk, scuba, hot yoga

172

Correct hypoNa too quickly -->?

Central pontine myelinolysis

173

Tx social anxiety
1. Generalized - going to a party, meeting new people
2. Performance - public speaking

1. SSRI

2. BB or benzo

174

HIV pt, w/ rapid necrotizing retinitis, painful visual loss cause

HSV

CMV = painLESS, fluffy, granular lesions

175

#1 cause of large bowel obstruction

Neoplasm

176

Repeated miscarriages with cervical dilation

Cervical incompetence - DES --> adenocarcinoma of vagina
-Cerclage placement

177

Spinal shock vs. neurogenic shock

Spinal shock = ABSENT bulbocavernosus reflex

It is present in SC damage - neurogenic shock