Option A: A.3 Perception of stimuli Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Option A: A.3 Perception of stimuli Deck (44):
1

Mechanoreceptors

stimulated by a mechanical force or some type of pressure.

2

pressure receptors

sense of touch caused by these that are sensitive to pressure. They can detect a change in blood pressure in our arteries.

3

stretch receptors

repsond to the degree of lung inflation in the lungs

4

proprioreceptors

found in muscle fingers, tendons, joints and ligaments that tell the position of our arms and legs. Help us to maintain posture and balance

5

Chemoreceptors

respond to chemical substances, we can taste and smell using this type of receptor. Give us information about our internal body environment. Pain receptors are a type of chemoreceptor that respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues.

6

Olfactory receptors

respond to smell

7

glomerulus

a cluster of nerve endings, spores, or small blood vessels, especially a cluster of capillaries around the end of a kidney tubule.

8

Thermoreceptors

respond to change in temperature. warmth receptors respond when the temperature rises, cold when temp drops. They are located in the skin

9

Photoreceptors

respond to light energy, found in the eyes. Our eyes are sensitive to light and give us vision. Rod cells in our eyes respond to dim light (black and white vision); cone cells respond to bright light (colour vision)

10

stimulus

a change in external or internal environment that is detected by a receptor and elicits a response

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response

a change in behaviour in reaction to a stimulus

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reflex

a rapid and unconscious response

13

sclera

tough, protective outer layer of eye

14

ligament

muscular portion of iris in eye

15

cornea

outer layer of the pupil focusing begins here

16

aqueous humour

transparent liquid

17

pupil

the hole, entry of light to the eye

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lens

adjustable focus of light of the eye

19

conjunctiva

the outer layer of the sclera, protective and mucus secretion. keeps the eye moist.

20

iris

pigmented, controls opening and closing of pupil, regulating entry of light

21

eyelid

protection, opening, cleaning of eye

22

vitreous humour

transparent jelly in the eye

23

retina

contains receptors for vision (rod cells) in the eye

24

choroid

layer of light-absorbing pigment of the eye

25

fovea

an area of densely packed cone cells were vision is most acute in the eye

26

optic nerve

carries nerve impulses to the occipital lobe (transmits impulses to brain)

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blind spot

no receptor cells in eye

28

Rod cells

photoreceptor cells that are very sensitive to light. They receive the stimulus of light, even very dim light, and synapse with a bipolar neuron. (black and white vision)

29

Cone cells

photoreceptor cells that are activated by bright light. They receive the stimulus of bright light and synapse with a bipolar neuron. (colour vision)

30

Bipolar neurones

cells in the retina that carry impulses from a rod or a cone cell to a ganglion cell of the optic nerve. They are called bipolar because they each have two processes extending from the cell body.

31

Ganglion cells

they synapse with the bipolar neurons and send the impulses to the brain via the optic nerve.

32

Trichromatic vision

three classes of cone cells: red, green and blue. Dichromatic have red-green vision defects.

33

stapes

a small stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations from the incus to the inner ear. strikes the oval window.

34

bones of middle ear vibrations

the malleus, incus and stapes receive vibrations from the tympanic membrane and multiple them x20

35

tympanic membrane

a membrane forming part of the organ of hearing, which vibrates in response to sound waves. Forms the eardrum

36

Stereocilia

stick out of the hair cells and detect sounds of a specific wavelength. As it bends back and forth on the hair cells, an internal change in the hair cell itself is created. This change produces an electrical impulse that is carried to the auditory nerve.

37

eardum

vibrated by air pressure changes due to sound waves

38

middle ear bones

stimulated by ear drum, knocks against each other and magnify sound (around 20x)

39

semicircular canals

balance (not hearing) in ear

40

oval window

transmits vibrations from middle ear bones

41

cochlea

tiny hairs respond to individual wavelengths of sound, generating AP in ear

42

auditory nerve

transmit nerve impulse from cochlea to brain in ear

43

round window

dissipates vibrations (dampens "used" sound stimulus) in ear

44

pinna

collection of sound waves in ear