Chapter 1: Cells Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapter 1: Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1: Cells Deck (159):
0

Nuclear pore

It allows communication between the nucleus and the rest of the cell

1

Binary fission

One cell divides into two cells, chromosome is copied then each copy move to opposite ends, plasma membrane pinches in Center, two daughter cells are identical, can happen every 20 minutes in ideal conditions

2

Pili

Hair like growths on the outside of the cell wall. They are used for attachment.
It's main function is joining bacterial cells in preparation for the transfer of DNA from one cell to another (sexual reproduction)

3

The nucleoid region

The nucleoid region contains a single, continuous, circular thread of DNA

4

What two main categories can cells be divided into?

Prokaryotes (no nucleus) and eukaryotes (nucleus)

5

Capsule

Outer layer of complex sugars, not always visible

6

Cell wall

Outer protection maintain the shape of cell

7

Plasma membrane

Controls what goes in and out of the cell

8

Flagellum

Long whip-like structures use for mobility (swimming)

9

Ribosomes

Used for protein synthesis

10

Cytoplasm

Liquid inside (mostly water) in which all the contents of the cell are found

11

Characteristics of eukaryotes

Compartmentalization – different zones do separate tasks, this is accomplished by membrane-bound organelles

12

Organelles

A discrete structure within a cell with a specific function

13

Endoplasmic reticulum

A network of tubes and flattened sacks used for transportation of materials

14

Rough ER

– Production of proteins
– transport of these proteins (Often enzymes)
Has ribosomes

15

Smooth ER

– Production of membrane phospholipids and cellular lipids
– sex hormones
– detoxification of drugs and liver cells – storage of calcium ions in muscle cells
-transportation of lipid-based compounds
– helps the liver release glucose it into the bloodstream when needed

16

Lysosomes

They are intracellular digestive centers, produced by the Golgi apparatus, contains digestive enzymes

17

Golgi apparatus

Collection, packaging, modification, distribution of materials made
-The cis (front) side receive the raw materials in vesicles from the ER
-The trans side discharges vesicles and lysosomes with modified materials

18

Mitochondria

Organelles that produce usable cellular energy
-inner membrane is folded into cristae which pass through the matrix

19

Nucleus

It contains DNA, bound by double membrane (nuclear envelope or nuclear membrane). It's function is to isolate chromosomes and make molecules used to build ribosomes. It controls cell division. Some exceptions: Red blood cells have no nucleus or some liver cells that have many nuclei

20

Chloroplasts

It's function is photosynthesis (making food from light)

21

Grana

Piles of thylakoids

22

Thylakoids

Flattened sacks in charge of collecting light

23

Stroma

Liquid inside chloroplasts

24

Centrosome

A pair of centrioles. It assembles microtubules which are useful for cell structure and moving things around

25

Vacuoles

Membrane-bound storage organelles within the cytoplasm of a cell. They contain water, food, waste, toxins.

26

Phospholipid bilayer

The two layers of phospholipids are arranged in such a way that their hydrophobic tails are projecting inwards while their polar head groups are projecting on the outside surfaces

27

Phospholipids and their properties

– Have a head which is polar and therefore hydrophilic
– It contains a phosphate group
– Have two tails of which are non-polar and therefore hydrophobic
– They are made up of fatty acid hydrocarbon chains

28

Diffusion

The passage of substances from an Area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

29

Functions of proteins in and on the membrane

– There are peripheral proteins on the surface and integral proteins inside the membrane. Also we can find transmembrane proteins which cut right through it.
– Channels for passive transport
– enzymatic action
– sites for hormone-binding
– cell adhesion
-cell-to-cell communication
-pumps for active transport

30

What is the source of energy for diffusion?

Kinetic energy

31

What happens in the diffusion

The particles bump into each other and into the solvent they are dissolved in

32

Osmosis

The passage of water molecules from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration through a semi permeable membrane

33

What kind of transport is diffusion

Passive transport. No channel needed, no ATP used

34

What is another kind of passive transport?

Facilitated the fusion, special channel but no ATP

35

Active transport

Special protein pump and ATP needed

36

ATP

Helps the protein pumps push the solute against the natural tendency towards equilibrium

37

Glycoproteins

Composed of carbohydrate chains attached to peripheral proteins.

38

Stimulus

A change in the internal or external environment that is detected by receptor and causes a response

39

Allele

One specific form of a gene

40

Gene

A heritable factor that controls the specific characteristic

41

Epithelial cells

Any one of several cells arranged in one or more layers that form part of the covering or lining of the body surface

42

Phospholipids

Make up the cell membrane are hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic

43

Centrioles

Associated with nuclear division. Composed of microtubules.

44

Nutrition (as a function of life)

Providing a source of compounds with many chemical bonds which can be broken down to provide the organism with energy and nutrients necessary to maintain life

45

Paramecium

A Uni cellular member of the kingdom known as Protista

46

Homeo status (as a function of life)

Caning a constant internal environment (temperature, acid-base levels…)

47

Facilitated diffusion

Particular type of diffusion involving a membrane with specific carrier proteins that are capable of combining with the substance to aid it's movement. The carrier protein changes shape to accomplish the task but does not require energy.

48

List the functions of life

Metabolism
Growth
Reproduction
Response
Homeostasis
Nutrition (excretion)

49

Cholesterol

Helps to regulate membrane fluidity and is important for membrane stability

50

Integral proteins

They completely penetrate the lipid bilayer. They control the entry and removal of specific molecules from the cell

51

Pluripotent (embryonic) stem cells

These stem cells retain the ability to form any type of cell and an organism

52

Genome

The whole of the genetic information of an organism

53

Reproduction (as a function of life)

Involves hereditary molecules that can be passed on to offspring

54

Cell

Structural, functional and biological unit of all organisms

55

Nucleolus

A dense, solid structure involved in ribosome synthesis

56

Meristematic tissue

Occur near root and stem tips of plants and are composed of rapidly reproducing cells that produce new cells capable of becoming various types of tissues within that root or stem

57

Peripheral proteins

They do not protrude into the middle hydrophobic region, but remain bound to the surface of the membrane

58

Growth (as a function of life)

Getting bigger, maybe limited but always evident

59

Cell differentiation

In a multicellular organism, a single cell has the ability to reproduce very quickly. The resulting cells go through a differentiation process to produce all the required cell types that are necessary for the well-being of the organism

60

Chlorella

A single celled organism

61

Locus

The location of a gene on a chromosome

62

Peptidoglycan

A polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of bacteria, forming the cell wall

63

Metabolism (as a function of life)

All the chemical reactions that occur within an organism

64

Response (as a function of life)

Responding to the environment, crucial to the survival

65

Stem cells

Cells that retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways

66

Lipids

A group of organic molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble and nonpolar organic solvents

67

Enzymes

Globular proteins which act as catalysts of chemical reactions

68

Exocytosis

A process by which the contents of the cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membrane

69

Endocytosis

Process that allows larger molecules to move across the plasma membrane. It occurs when a portion of the plasma membrane is pinched off.

70

Phosphorylation

Causes the protein to change shape, thus expelling sodium ions to the exterior

71

Active transport

Involves the movement of substances against a concentration gradient. It requires energy

72

Passive transport

Does not require energy. Occurs in situations where there are areas of different concentrations of a particular substance. Movement of a substance occurs from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

73

Concentration gradient

A gradual change in the concentration of solutes in a solution as a function of distance through a solution

74

What is the Endosymbiotic theory?

2 billion years ago a bacterial cell took up residence inside a eukaryotic cell, they formed a symbiotic relationship, the bacterial cell went through a series of changes to ultimately become a mitochondrion

75

Interphase

Largest phase of the cell cycle, major event is growth of the cell, replication of the DNA, chromosomes. Prepares for mitosis, DNA begins to condense from chromatin two chromosomes and microtubules may begin to form

76

Cyclins

Group of proteins that control the cells progression through the cell cycle

77

Mitosis

The replicated chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles of the cell, the S providing the same genetic material at each of these locations. Then the cytoplasm divides, to form two daughter cells.

78

Supercoiling

The DNA first wraps around histones to produce nucleosomes. The nucleus zones are for the wrapped into a solenoid. Solenoids group together and looped domains to produce the chromosome

79

Solenoids

The super coiled arrangement of DNA and eukaryotic nuclear chromosomes produced by coiling the continuous string of nucleosomes

80

Nucleosomes

Any of the repeating subunits of chromatin occurring at intervals along the strand of DNA consisting of DNA coiled around histones.

81

Histones

Proteins the DNA tightly coils around to form chromosomes

82

Centromere

The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up the X-shaped chromosome

83

Chromatid

Either of the two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed by the duplication of the chromosomes during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes

84

Four phases of mitosis

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

85

Mitotic spindle

The collective term for all the spindle fibers that form during mitosis. It is a spindle shape structure that develops outside the nucleus during mitosis. The fibers that constitute the mitotic spindle pull the chromatids apart toward opposite poles

86

Kinetochore

Large multi protein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase.

87

Microtubules

A hollow cylindrical structure in the cytoplasm of most cells involved in intracellular shape and transport

88

Cytokinesis

Once nuclear division has occurred, the cell undergoes cytokinesis. In animal cells, it involves an inward pinching of the fluid plasma membrane to form cleavage furrows. Plant cells with a firm cell wall form a cell plate. It occurs midway between the two poles of the cell. Two separate daughter cells are created that have genetically identical nuclei.

89

Metastasis

The transfer of disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.

90

Oncogenes

The gene the causes the transformation of normal cells in the cancerous tumor cells.

91

Mutagen

An agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism

92

Histones

Proteins the DNA tightly coils around the form chromosomes

93

Centromere

The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up the X-shaped chromosome

94

Chromatid

Either of the two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed by the duplication of the chromosomes during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes

95

Four phases of mitosis

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

96

Mitotic spindle

The collective term for all the spindle fibers that form during mitosis. It is a spindle shape structure that develops outside the nucleus during mitosis. The fibers that constitute the mitotic spindle pull the chromatids apart toward opposite poles

97

Kinetochore

Large multi protein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase.

98

Microtubules

A hollow cylindrical structure in the cytoplasm of most cells involved in intracellular shape and transport

99

Cytokinesis

Once nuclear division has occurred, the cell undergoes cytokinesis. In animal cells, it involves an inward pinching of the fluid plasma membrane to form cleavage furrows. Plant cells with a firm cell wall form a cell plate. It occurs midway between the two poles of the cell. Two separate daughter cells are created that have genetically identical nuclei

100

Metastasis

The transfer of disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.

101

Oncogenes

The gene the causes the transformation of normal cells in the cancerous tumor cells.

102

Mutagen

An agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism

103

Histones

Proteins the DNA tightly coils around the form chromosomes

104

Centromere

The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up the X-shaped chromosome

105

Chromatid

Either of the two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed by the duplication of the chromosomes during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes

106

Four phases of mitosis

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

107

Mitotic spindle

The collective term for all the spindle fibers that form during mitosis. It is a spindle shape structure that develops outside the nucleus during mitosis. The fibers that constitute the mitotic spindle pull the chromatids apart toward opposite poles

108

Kinetochore

Large multi protein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase.

109

Microtubules

A hollow cylindrical structure in the cytoplasm of most cells involved in intracellular shape and transport

110

Cytokinesis

Once nuclear division has occurred, the cell undergoes cytokinesis. In animal cells, it involves an inward pinching of the fluid plasma membrane to form cleavage furrows. Plant cells with a firm cell wall form a cell plate. It occurs midway between the two poles of the cell. Two separate daughter cells are created that have genetically identical nuclei

111

Metastasis

The transfer of disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.

112

Oncogenes

The gene the causes the transformation of normal cells in the cancerous tumor cells.

113

Mutagen

An agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism

114

Histones

Proteins the DNA tightly coils around the form chromosomes

115

Centromere

The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up the X-shaped chromosome

116

Chromatid

Either of the two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed by the duplication of the chromosomes during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes

117

Four phases of mitosis

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

118

Mitotic spindle

The collective term for all the spindle fibers that form during mitosis. It is a spindle shape structure that develops outside the nucleus during mitosis. The fibers that constitute the mitotic spindle pull the chromatids apart toward opposite poles

119

Kinetochore

Large multi protein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase.

120

Microtubules

A hollow cylindrical structure in the cytoplasm of most cells involved in intracellular shape and transport

121

Cytokinesis

Once nuclear division has occurred, the cell undergoes cytokinesis. In animal cells, it involves an inward pinching of the fluid plasma membrane to form cleavage furrows. Plant cells with a firm cell wall form a cell plate. It occurs midway between the two poles of the cell. Two separate daughter cells are created that have genetically identical nuclei

122

Metastasis

The transfer of disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.

123

Oncogenes

The gene the causes the transformation of normal cells in the cancerous tumor cells.

124

Mutagen

An agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism

125

Histones

Proteins the DNA tightly coils around the form chromosomes

126

Centromere

The constricted region joining the two sister chromatids that make up the X-shaped chromosome

127

Chromatid

Either of the two strands joined together by a single centromere, formed by the duplication of the chromosomes during the early stages of cell division and then separate to become individual chromosomes

128

Four phases of mitosis

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

129

Mitotic spindle

The collective term for all the spindle fibers that form during mitosis. It is a spindle shape structure that develops outside the nucleus during mitosis. The fibers that constitute the mitotic spindle pull the chromatids apart toward opposite poles

130

Kinetochore

Large multi protein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase.

131

Microtubules

A hollow cylindrical structure in the cytoplasm of most cells involved in intracellular shape and transport

132

Cytokinesis

Once nuclear division has occurred, the cell undergoes cytokinesis. In animal cells, it involves an inward pinching of the fluid plasma membrane to form cleavage furrows. Plant cells with a firm cell wall form a cell plate. It occurs midway between the two poles of the cell. Two separate daughter cells are created that have genetically identical nuclei

133

Metastasis

The transfer of disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it.

134

Oncogenes

The gene the causes the transformation of normal cells in the cancerous tumor cells.

135

Mutagen

An agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in an organism

136

Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

In many animal cells, composed of collagen fibres + sugars and proteins called glycoproteins, creating fibre-like structures that anchor the matrix to the plasma membrane. This strengthens the plasma membrane and allows attachment between adjacent cells. It allows cell-to-cell interactions.

137

Chlorella

a single-celled organism that has one very large structure called chloroplast inside a cell wall. This structure enables the conversion of sunlight to a chemical energy called carbohydrate.

138

Carbohydrate

any of a class of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, including starches and sugars, produced in green plants by photosynthesis: important source of food for animals and people.

139

Prokaryotic Cells Characteristics

-DNA not enclosed within a membrane (forms one circular chromosome)
-DNA is free, not attached to proteins
-lack membrane-bound organelles
-their cell wall is made up of a compound called peptidoglycan
--divide by binary fission
-small in size, between 1 and 10 micrometers
-only in bacteria
-no compartmentalization

140

Organelles of Eukaryotic cells

-endoplasmic reticulum
-ribosomes
-lysosomes
-golgi apparatus
-mitochondria
-nucleus
-chloroplasts
-centrosomes
-vacuoles

141

Plasmids

A segment of DNA independent of the chromosomes and capable of replication, occurring in bacteria and yeast

142

What do plant cells have in the membranes to maintain proper membrane fluidity? (cholesterol in animal cells)

saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

143

Proteins as sites for hormone binding

specific shapes exposed to the exterior that fit the shape of specific hormones. the attachment between the hormone and the protein causes a change in the shape of protein, results in a message being relayed to the interior of the cell

144

Proteins for enzymatic action

cells have enzymes attached to membranes that catalyze many chemical reactions. The enzymes may be on the interior or exterior of the cell.

145

Proteins for cell adhesion

proteins that can hook together in various ways to provide permanent or temporary connections.

146

Proteins for cell-to-cell communication

proteins have carbohydrate molecules attached to it. They provide an identification label that represents the cells of different types of species.

147

Proteins as channels in passive transport

provides passageways for substances to be transported through. When this transport is passive, material moves through the channel from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

148

Proteins as channels in active transport

proteins shuttle the substance from one side of the membrane to another by changing shape. This process requires the expenditure of energy in the form of ATP.

149

Hypertonic solution

a hypertonic solution is one with a higher concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell. When a cell is immersed into a hypertonic solution, the tendency is for water to flow out of the cell in order to balance the concentration of the solutes.

150

Hypotonic solution

opposite of hypertonic solution: lower concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell. When a cell is immersed into a hypotonic solution, the tendency is for water to stay in the cell. Water moves from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution.

151

Isotonic solution

An isotonic solution refers to two solutions having the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane. This state allows for the free movement of water across the membrane without changing the concentration of solutes on either side of the membrane.

152

the 2 factors that determine whether the substance can easily move across a membrane

Size and charge. Small and non-polar molecules cross easily such as gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) and water and glycerol. Big and polar molecules have difficulty such as ions (chloride ions, potassium ions, sodium ions and glucose and sucrose)

153

The sodium-potassium pump

the mechanism for actively moving sodium and potassium ions

154

Cell theory

1. all organisms are composed of one or more cells
2. cells are the smallest units of life
3. all cells come from the pre-existing cells

155

What experiment did Louis Pasteur disprove?

Spontaneous Generation

156

S phase

replication of the DNA of the cell (chromosomes). The synthesis phase

157

G1 phase

growth of the cell, cellular contents apart from chromosomes are duplicated

158

G2 phase

the cell grows and makes preparations for mitosis. Organelles may increase in number, DNA begins to condense from chromatin to chromosomes and microtubules may begin to form