Option A: A.4 Innate and learned behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Option A: A.4 Innate and learned behaviour Deck (33):
1

Innate Behaviour

behavior inherited from parents and so develops independently of environmental context. They are controlled by genes. Genetically programmed behaviours, which ensure the survival of the animal.

2

Taxis

a directed response to a stimulus. If the animal's body is directed towards the stimulus, we say it has a positive response. If away, negative response.

3

Chemotaxis

response to chemicals in the environment. .

4

Phototaxis

the response to light.

5

Gravitaxis

response to gravity.

6

Rheotaxis

response to water current

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Thigmotaxis

response to touch

8

Planaria

a flatworm that lives in lakes and ponds, quite active and moves by contraction of muscle fibers in its body.

9

Euglena

single-celled protist, has a flagellum. Makes its own food by photosynthesis because it contains molecules of chlorophyll. It is positively phototaxis because it needs light to perform photosynthesis.

10

Kinesis

a movement in response to a non-directional stimulus, such as humidity. The rate of movement of an animal depends on the intensity of the stimulus, not its direction.

11

Orthokinesis

when an organism moves slowly or rapidly (changes speed) in response to a stimulus, but it does not move towards the stimulus.

12

Klinokinesis

when an organism turns slowly or rapidly in response to a stimulus, but it does not move towards the stimulus.

13

Pain Reflexes

involves a series of nerves that run from your arm to your spinal cord, and back to your arm muscle (if your arm is in pain). You do not control reflexes with your brain, they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system.

14

Reflex Arc

composed of a receptor cell, a sensory neurons, a relay neurone in the spinal cord, and a motor neurons which carries the message to the effector (muscle).

15

Effector

an organ that performs the response

16

Reflex conditioning

used to modify a reflex response, (Pavlov dog experiment)

17

UCS

unconditioned stimulus (the wave hand in Pavlov exp)

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UCR

unconditioned response (the eye blink in Pavlov exp)

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CS

conditioned stimulus (musical note in Pavlov exp)

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CR

conditioned response ( eye blink in response to musical note in Pavlov exp)

21

Learned Behaviour

not genetically programmed behavior, it develops as a result of experience.

22

Imprinting

happens at a particular stage in life. It is a rapid learning process by which a young animal develops an attraction and recognition of another moving object, usually the mother. The behavior occurs regardless of the consequences.

23

Operant Conditioning

is a method of learning that occurs through reinforcements and punishments for behavior. It encourages the subject to associate desirable or undesirable outcomes with certain behaviors.

24

Encoding

brain processes information that it receives from the senses so that it can be remembered.

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Visual encoding

converting information into mental pictures

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Elaborative encoding

relating new information to old knowledge already stored in the memory

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Accoustic encoding

encoding of sound, such as spoken language

28

Sensation encoding

encoding of sensations such as touch, smells and tastes

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Semantic encoding

remembering sensory input in a context. for example using a mnemonic device such as ROYGBIV as a strategy to remember the colors of the light spectrum.

30

Short term memory

holds a small amount of information for a short period of time. It holds on to items we are actively thinking about. Information stored here is retrieved in sequence

31

Long term memory

stored over a long period of time. LTM involves a physical change in the neural network of the brain. With repeated use, the circuits of the brain are altered and strengthened

32

Recognition

association of a physical object or event with something already experienced. It involves comparing present information with memory. Recognition simply requires a decision about whether or not something has been encountered before.

33

Recall

involves remembering a fact, object, or event that is not currently present. Actively reconstructing the memory requires the activation of all the neurones involved in the memory. More complicated than recognition.