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Flashcards in Oral mucosa Deck (69):
1

mucous membrane is composed of

1. epithelium
2. c.t (lamina propria...sometimes mucosa)

2

b.v, minor salivary glands, and ducts for all salivary glands can be found within the

l.p or submucosa

3

lymphoid tissue

is also found embedded in the oral mucoa via the lingual and palatine tonsils (pos 1/3 of tongue)

4

what are the fns of the mucosa

1. protection as it acts as a barrier (epithelium>b.l)
2. anti-microbial (immune cells and epithelial cells that secrete antimicrobials)
3. ingestion (flexible, moist surface)

5

where are more immune cells found in the mucosa

l.p> epithelium

6

that is beta defensin

an antimicrobial secreted by the epithelial cells. it is cysteine rich and cationic (+) so able to bind to the (-) charges on bacterial membranes and permeabilize them

7

is the oral mucosa highly innervated

yes

8

why does the oral mucosa differ from the pulp and PDL

capable of more types of sensations

9

what nerve fibers does the dentin/pulp have

c, a-delta, a-beta...for mostly pain!

10

what nerve fibers does the PDL have

c, a-delta for pain.....a-beta for proprioception

11

what fibers of the oral mucosa detect touch

a-beta

12

what fibers of the oral mucosa detect pain

a-delta and c

13

what fibers of the oral mucosa detect thermal

a-delta and c

14

what fibers of the oral mucosa detect taste

a-delta

15

what is oral epithelium

stratified squamous epithelium

16

what are the deep layers of epithelium for

cell division for self renewal...has a very fast turnover (makes it more vulnerable to conditions that affect cell division bc it is so reliant on it)

17

what are the superficial layers of epithelium for

migrate and mature and at the surface, slough off

18

what is the epithelium of the mucosa made up of

mostly: cells (keratinocytes mostly and the non-keratinocytes such as merkel, melanocytes, and langerhans cells)

19

what are merkel cells

non-keratinocytes, sensory, found in the basal layer

20

what are melanocytes

non keratinocytes, pigment cells, found in the basal layer. contain melanosomes. have cell processes to distribute the pigment to other cells and ecm of epi.

21

what are langerhans cells

dendritic cells for immune fn, found in the supra basal layer

22

why do langerhans and melanocytes appear clear

lack of cytokeratin staining

23

alveolar mucosa, buccal mucosa, and soft palate

non-keratinized (darker)

24

gingiva and hard palate

keratinized (lighter)

25

keratinized epithelium layers

1. keratin layer
2. granular layer
3. prickle cell layer
4. basal cell layer

26

non keratinized epithelium layers

1. superficial layer
2. intermediate later
3. prickle cells layer
4. basal cell layer

27

keratin layer vs. superficial layer

keratin has no organelles and is dehydrated which makes it tougher. the superficial layer has organells and is flexible

28

keratinocytes contain

cytokeratins

29

cytokeratins are

family of proteins. assemble into intermediate filaments (strongest) (framework). 2 types: type 1 (acidic), type 2 (basic). tough and provide support. create the intracellular component of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes.

30

structure of cytokeratins

central helical core. each cell expresses at least 2 cytokeratins (one of each type (1 or 2)). their monomers assemble into heterodimer and 10 heterodimers (wound together) is an intermediate filament

31

epidermolysis bullosa simplex

mutation in basal layer cytokeratins

32

different epithelial layers contain

characteristic cytokeratins

33

different epithelial tissues contain (keratinized vs non)

characteristic cytokeratins

34

can cytokeratin expression change with disease state

yes

35

white sponge nevus

mutations in particular cytokeratin genes that are in non-k tissue...so this only affects non-k oral epithelia

36

what is tougher, non-k or k

k ...largely due to the amount of cytokeratin

37

what is more flexible, non-k or k

non-k

38

what is more impermeable, non-k or k

k....desmosomes contribute and are more numerous in keratinized epithelia

39

the amount of cytokeratin increase as you go

more superficially

40

cytokeratins in keratinized tissue

promotes aggregation of cytokeratins-->tonofibrils....this promotes binding to another molecule, fillagrin....the superficial layer of k tissue is pack with cytokeratin/tonofibril-fillagrin complexes

41

cytokeratins in non-k tissue

doesnt promote aggregation, doesn't complex with fillagrin, superficial layers not dehydrated (contains ctyokeratin tonofilaments, and nuclei)

42

what are membrane coating granules

membrane bound organelles that are filled with glycolipids. they first appear in the upper prickle cell layer and then are released into more superficial layers to coat the cells. in both k and non-k epithelia. act as INTERCELLULAR barrier to aqueous substances

43

differences in chemical composition of membrane coating granules/secretions, which epithelia has a more effective barrier against aqueous substances

keratinized epithelium

44

membrane thickening

occurs on the inner face of keratinocytes in k and non-k epithelium

45

cornified envelope

only in k epithelia. 15nm crosslinked protein sheath. loricrin and other proteins. impermeable barrier to protect stuff from passing through.

46

parakeratinized tissue

midway b/w non-k and k tissue....some organelles retained in superficial layers

47

what makes up the l.p of the mucosa

ECM (mostly), cells (fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, other inflamm cell), ecm

48

the ecm of the l.p contains

PGs and GAGs, glycoproteins (fibronectin), collagen (type I and II), elastin (more prominent in oral mucosa than in pulp/PDL)

49

the relative amount of type I: type III collagen is greater for

less flexible regions of the oral cavity

50

the epithelial-c.t interface

basal lamina in b/w, convoluted....epithelial rete pegs inserted within the c.t papillae (papillary layer interacts with rete pegs and reticular layer of l.p is below)

51

what causes stippling of the gingiva

rete pegs and c.t papillae

52

submucosa

present under some regions of the oral mucosa. contains b.v, nerves, glands. separates l.p from bone and muscle

53

no submucosa where

l.p-->muscle of tongue......l.p--> bone/mucoperiosteum of the gingiva/hard palate/rugae region/median raphe

54

masticatory mucosa is found

gingiva, hard palate

55

lining mucosa is found

underside of tongue, floor of mouth, alveolar mucosa, soft palate, cheek

56

lining mucosa is

non-k/p-k epithelium, more elastin/less collagen, submucosa usually present, attachement to bone or muscle loose and flexible

57

clinical implications with lining mucosa

incisions more likely to gape and need sutures, injections less painful

58

tongue mucosas

ventral= lining, dorsal=specialized

59

lip mucosa

1. exterior: keratinized, thin, sweat glands and hair follicles
2. vermillon zone: keratinized, thin, b.v close, no sweat/mucous glands
3. labial: non-k, thicker, mucous glands

60

masticatory mucosa

keratinized, dense l.p, more collagen/less elastin, submucosa in hard palate variable, not in rugae/minline raphe, adj to gingiva or in gingiva

61

mucoperiosteum

when submucosa isnt present

62

clinical implications with masticatory mucosa

incisions don't gape, injections more painful

63

sulcular epithelium

part of free gingiva facing the tooth, non-k

64

jn epithelium

forms seal with hard tooth tissue, oriented on long axis, tapers in cell #, straight b.m, non-differentiated cells, not many tonofilaments, desmosomes, not any membrane coating granules, HIGHLY PERMEABLE, 2 basal lamina, can rapidly regenerate

65

what are the 2 basal lamina of the jn epithelium

external (JE/l.p): has typical molecular components
internal (JE/tooth): has integrin and laminin but LACK type IV and VII collagen

66

ODAM

protein initially expressed with ameloblasts and now the JE expresses it since common origin (REE)

67

vascular supply of gingiva in mandible

superior alveolar a and palatine a

68

vascular supply of gingiva in the maxilla

inferior alveolar a, buccal a, mental a, sublingual a

69

what are the 3 routes that vascular supply can get to the gingiva

1. PDL
2. interdental septa
3. oral mucosa