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Flashcards in Saliva Deck (76):
1

symptoms of hyposalivation

dry mouth, no saliva, problems swallowing, rampant caries, mucosal atrophy, fissured tongue, hypomineralized teeth/discolored

2

congenital salivary aplasia

total agenesis (lack of development) of major salivary glands. genetic abnormality. can occur in isolation or it can be accompanied by developmental disorders of the ectoderm or 1st branchial arch

3

scintigraphy

to test salivary fn. sodium pertechnetate binds to Na-K-Cl membrane transport system of salivary and other gland cells. absence of radioactivity in the region of the glands=affected

4

the severity of the symptoms of agenesis of glands is...

related to the # of glands involved and the type of abnormality (lack of glands or hypofunction)

5

the major component of saliva is

water

6

mucins

highly glycosylated glycoproteins. viscous. responsible for lubricating the mucosal surface and providing a protective barrier. also important for trapping bacteria and sugar.

7

bicarbonate

buffering acids in the mouth

8

proline-rich proteins and statherin

calcium binding proteins. allow saliva to become super saturated with calcium (for enamel maturation and remineralization)

9

antimicrobial effects of saliva come from...

IgA, lysozyme, defensins, histatins, peroxidase

10

how does saliva participate in tissue repair

secreting growth factors (epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor)

11

how does saliva contribute to digestion

lubrication (mucins) and enzymes that break down food (amylase..starch) (lipase...fats)

12

how is saliva vital for the function of taste

tasty molecules are dissolved by WATER to be transported to the taste buds

13

what type of gland are the salivary glands

exocrine (discharge via a duct)...just like sebbaceous glands

14

normal daytime salivary flow rate is

.3-.4 ml/min

15

volume of saliva in mouth

.8-1.1ml

16

during sleep what happens to saliva flow

decreases a lot

17

3 major salivary glands

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

18

name the minor salivary glands

Von Ebner's, labial, palatal, buccal and lingual

19

parotid gland

contributes the most saliva, innervated by IX, serous, secretes amylase

20

submandibular gland

25%, mixed, mostly serous, innervated by VII

21

sublingual gland

7-8%, mixed, mostly mucous, innervated by VII

22

Von Ebner's glands

pure serous, lingual lipase, posterior 2/3 of tongue

23

minor salivary glands

major source of mucins, pure mucous glands

24

duct of the parotid is

stenson's duct...found on the opposite 2nd max. molar

25

submandibular duct is called

Wharton's duct...on lingual frenum

26

sublingual duct is called

empties into a series of ducts on the sublingual fold (behind wharton's)...bartholin's and rivinus ducts

27

all salivary glands are made up of...

stroma and parenchyma

28

stroma of the gland

provides structural support...forming the capsule and organizing the gland into lobes. made up of connective tissue. develop from the neural crest

29

parenchyma of the gland

does the work of the gland, discharges the saliva. made up of epithelium. develop from the ECTODERM OR ENDODERM

30

the stroma contains

fibroblasts (major cell type...makes collagen), blood vessels nerve fibers, plasma cells, fat cells (increase with age).

31

parenchyma of the salivary glands are composed of

secretory portion (acini/endpieces) and ducts.

32

what are acini

the secretory portion of the parenchyma. composed of acinar cells (make the saliva). acinar cells can be serous or mucous

33

3 types of ducts

striated, intercalated, excretory

34

timing of parotid gland development

1st part of the 6th week IU

35

timing of submandibular development

end of 6th week IU

36

timing of the sublingual/minor glands development

weeks 8-12 IU (2-3 mo)

37

initiation of salivary gland development starts out with

thickening of the ectoderm or endoderm...bud appearance (prebud--> bud) into the mesenchyme. signals must be exchanged b/w epithelial and mesenchymal compartments ..similar to odontogenesis

38

branching stages of salivary gland development

pseudoglandular...single bud branches, then branches again and again...then cavitates/hollows out in cavitation (canilicular stage)...then terminal differentiation stage

39

before branching....

each cells is joined together by e-cadherin (cell adhesion molecules)

40

as cleft formation starts

cadherin startes to break up and then disappears at the base of the cleft...then disappears on the entire side of the cell facing the cleft. e-cadherin remains on the other surfaces of the same cells (aka the expression of cadherin is REDIRECTED in a spacially specific manner)

41

what is cleftin

molecule whose expression causes the branching of the cells of the salivary gland.

42

cleftin expression is induced by

ecm molecule, fibronectin. fibronectin interacts with fibronectin receptors that are located on the membranes of salivary gland cells

43

actions of cleftin

suppressed the expression of e-cadherin and upregulates the expression of snail2

44

what is snail2

t.f that promotes change in cell shape and when coupled with e-cadherin loss, allows gaps to form=clefting

45

what are acini made up of

saliva secreting cells which empty into a series of ducts. primary secretion is water and ions and proteins...ISOTONIC. acinar cells are water permeable

46

what do the ducts do

secrete and resorb components of salivary secretion to make it hypotonic. duct cells are non-water permeable. they secrete bicarbonate ion

47

what is the primary secretion of saliva

isotonic...water, proteins ions (Na and Cl).

48

what is the secondary secretion of saliva

hypotonic..bicarbonate, proteins, resorbed (Na and Cl)

49

salivary secretion is controlled by

neuronal...p.symp and symp

50

p.symp control

pregang cell bodies located in the brainstem and send their axons via CN 7 and 9 to synapse on postgang near the gland be releasing Ach which binds to a muscarinic type receptor. GCPR-->phospholipase C--> IP3 released-->liberates Ca from the ER-->opens Cl channels--> [] gradient releases Cl from the cell into the lumen which creates an electrical and osmotic gradient causing Na and H20 into the lumen via a paracellular pathway

51

symp control

cell bodies in the inner medial lateral cell column of the s.c send axons to the superior cervical ganglion on postgang cells that supply the glands via NE binding to a beta-adrenergic receptor. this is GCPR-->AC-->cAMP-->PKA-->phosphorylates secretory granules that contain proteins and causes them to be released.

52

symp secretion

protein secretion. viscous secretion. not voluminous.

53

Cl is maintained in salivary cells at

high concentration intracellulary via an energy requiring ion pump

54

psymp secretion

fluid secretion...most volume in saliva

55

spaces b/w cells in acini are called

intercellular spaces..joined by tight jns

56

the entire endpiece is surrounded by a

basal lamina

57

serous acinar cell

pyramidal, irregular microvilli, protein secreting, round nucleus at base with rER and GA. don't secrete mucins. secretory granules in apical part

58

mucous acinar cells

cuboidal to columnar. oval nuclei squished at bottom, secrete mucins. secretory granules are pale staining. elongated/tubular in appearance. lumen is larger than serous

59

serous demilune

mucous acini topped by cluster of serous cells. artifact of conventional fixation.

60

name artifacts of fixation

1. serous demilunes (s and m cells should simply be side by side)
2. mucous granules are fused (should be segregated from one another)
3. nuclei are located squished at bottom of cell (shouldn't be squished)

61

myoepithelial cells

associated with serous/mucous acini and intercalated ducts. specialized epithelial cells with contractile properties. has a bunch of properties that wrap around the acini and ducts. they are neurally innervated and facilitate the movement of saliva into the ductal system

62

3 types of ducts

intercalated--> striated--> excretory--> oral cavity

63

what is the difference in ducts for minor salivary glands

intercalated ducts sometimes, no striated ducts, empties directly into an excretory duct. many excretory ducts associated with a given gland.

64

intercalated duct

smallest, short. cuboidal with central nucleus. secrete a few antimicrobial proteins (lysozyme and lactoferrin)

65

striated duct

more active. tall columnar cells. highly polarize. apical end has short microvilli. basal end has infolding of membrane. prominent mitochondria site of reabsorption. secrete a few proteins (kallikrein) and secrete bicarbonate. reabsorb in the apical end of the cell and then are transported through the cell to its basal aspect where they pass to capillaries adj to the striations

66

reabsorption is against the [ ] gradient so it is an

energy requiring process for which ATP is critical

67

excretory ducts

used for plumbing. series of connecting ducts that become wider. change from a single epi layer into pseudostratified epi layer (when reaches the oral epithelium) and then can becomes stratified and keratinized. goblet cells can be intermingled within (secreting mucous)

68

excretory ducts are often within the

stroma of the gland

69

Von Ebner's glands

associated with the taste-bud bearing foliate and circumvallate papillae of the pos. tongue. serous. open into the trenches of the foliates and circumvallates.

70

age changes of saliva

general loss of perenchyma. drug related dry mouth

71

mump affects

affects the parotid most fq. painful swelling.

72

obstruction of ducts

calcified stones...esp in Wharton's.

73

ducts of minor glands

can get obstructed bc of trauma or mucous plugs

74

viral affects

viruses can replicate within the salivary gland and shed into saliva

75

hyposalivation causes

1. genetic mutation
2. medications (anticholinergic drugs...atrovent) (diuretics...furosimide/lasix)
3. systemic diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, diabetes, HIV)
4. iatrogenic/medical treatment (radiotherapy)

76

radiotherapy effects

initially: due to an effect on fn of the gland, then later effects: actual cell death of acinar cells