Flashcards in Oral quiz Deck (31):
“Tell me the days of the week backwards”
Rationale: Testing focus and attention, working memory, and semantic knowledge in order to answer the question.
“Copy this image”
Rationale: fine motor skills, ability to use recreate images using mental visual representation and interpretation which is part of visual perception. Understanding visual perspective including monocular and binocular cues.
“Can you tell me anything about what we talked about in therapy last week?”
Rationale: Long term memory, episodic memory of the event that is linked to the way that person felt at them time, e.g. it may be easier to remember things in last week’s session if the client is feeling similarly this week. Certainly retrieval processes.
“Please describe this painting in my office.”
Rationale: Turning one’s emotions into comprehensible language. Visual perception using monocular and binocular cues. Speech processes or the actual production of words.
“Show me how you would comb your hair and eat using a fork and knife.”
Rationale: Converting language into action using interpretations based on past experience, semantic knowledge, and adaptive functioning skills. Using procedural memory or the memory of how to use certain objects in context.
“Describe to me a time when you felt sad.”
Rationale: Ability to recall an emotional (long term memory, retrieval) and episodic memory of a specific event in their life that made them sad. Ability to properly interpret or assess what sad generally means. Expressive language in order to convey how and why the event made them feel sad. Longterm memory of the event.
“If someone were to insult your best friend, describe to me how that would make you feel.”
Rationale: Episodic memory of similar events. Interpreting how similar events made them feel. Abstract reasoning to link similar events to the current hypothetical event. Ability to understand how thoughts, actions, and behaviors are linked. the ability to imagine how a particular experience might feel based on similar past experiences.
Visually perceiving and scanning information on my poster, others around me. These processes use monocular and binocular cues.
Being alert and aware; sustaining attention, focused, alternating if need be, selective (not being distracted).
Being able to retrieve encoded information about information in the presentation.
Expressive: being able to accurately produce and articulate what I want to say. Receptive: being able to comprehend and understand a question or comment and respond accordingly.
Decision making/problem solving/judgment
Making decisions about what I specifically want to say, and how to say it. Also, making decisions on what to include on the poster. Problem solving while preparing the poster or when people ask me questions.
My current mood e.g. recognizing if I’m anxious and comprehending how this could affect my performance (decision-making, memory, and attention, etc.). Also identifying the mood of the audience, and understanding the relation of how it could influence my mood.
functional use; intended meaning.
Example: how words can have different meanings depending on the context in which they are used. “sick” typically meaning not feeling well however in some subcultures of popculture it means cool.
the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences or stories in a language.
a standardized system for using a particular writing system (script) to write a particular language. It includes rules of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
literal meaning of words.
Example: literally means that is going to happen and should not be used to emphasize metaphorical things, e.g. I am literally dying or literally starving to insinuate hunger. Using semantics one would assume that person is going to die soon or is starving.
Nonfluent [Broca’s] aphasia
talk in a fragmented way; difficult producing speech (e.g. leaving out small words). But comprehension is good.
Fluent [Wernicke’s] aphasia
speak well, still fluent, but doesn’t make sense; it’s going to come out sounding like word salad; will be smooth but no one will know what they’re saying.
a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of words. Problems occur with the muscles that help produce speech, often making it very difficult to pronounce words, but unrelated to any problem with understanding cognitive language.
a deficit in memory caused by brain damage or psychological trauma. The memory can be either wholly or partially lost. The ability to recall immediate information is usually still retained, and they may still be able to form new memories.
Unconscious memory of skills and habits; particularly involves objects or using the body (e.g. typing on the computer).
Explicit memory; involves remembering facts, semantics episodic/events that have happened; it’s conscious; intentional recollection of previous or learned information (e.g. what you had for breakfast yesterday).
Drawing conclusions that are valid provided the assumptions are true; based on formal logic (e.g. I will get burned if I touch the hot stove).
Making a generalized conclusion from statements referring to particular instances; conclusions of inductively valid arguments are probably (but not necessarily true); Hypotheses can never be proven true simply through logical induction (e.g. Tibetan monks don’t like women, so all monks must not like women).
optimal performance occurs at an intermediate level of arousal; if your arousal level is too low, you may be inefficient but if it’s too high, you may also be inefficient; it’s different for each individual (e.g. in order to perform optimally on a test, you need the right amount of arousal- not too much or you’ll be anxious, not too little or you won’t be motivated to perform).
the restricting of attention in high-stress situations to a small set of critical details. If critical information occurs outside this display, performance will suffer, aka omissions of task-relevant information can occur (e.g. when driving to the hospital for a medical emergency, the driver may focus attention on the road ahead and thus neglect events on the side of the road, such as a women entering a crosswalk. He may run over her as a result).
Serial Position Curve
the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst. When asked to recall a list of items in any order (free recall), people tend to begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best (recency effect). Among earlier list items, the first few items are recalled more frequently than the middle items (primacy effect).
Transfer Appropriate Processing
a type of state-dependent memory specifically showing that memory performance is not only determined by the depth of processing, but by the relationship between how information is initially encoded and how it is later retrieved.
How you make use of higher cognitive functions (problem solving) when conducting therapy:
-It is purposeful (i.e., goal-directed), realistic, motivated to do it, It involves cognitive rather than automatic processes
- Well-Defined Problems
a. All aspects of the problem are specified: Initial state, range of possible strategies, Goal/solution (e.g. a treatment plan)
b. Have an optimal strategy and one right answer (very explicit, not vague) - typically not the case in therapy
-ill Defined Problem - most problems in a therapy are ill-defined Can use, heuristics, algorithms, Proximal goals lead to distal goals - form a sub-goal that will reduce the difference between the current state and the goals state (baby steps, small achievements that can help develop self-efficacy and motivation)