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Cognitive & Affective Processes > Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Perception Deck (35):
1

Apperceptive Agnosia

Impairment due to deficits in perceptual processing.
- dorsal route
- view dependent
- bottom up processing
- where how

2

Associative Agnosia -

Perception in tact except difficulties in accessing relevant knowledge about objects from memory.
- Oliver Saks glove example
- ventral
- view invariant - top down
- what

3

Object Agnosia

Impaired object recognition but intact facial recognition

4

Structural encoding

Various representations or descriptions of faces

5

Expression analysis

An emotional state can be inferred from facial features

6

Facial speech analysis

Speech perception can be aided by observing lip movements

7

Directed visual processing

Special facial info may be processed selectively

8

Face recognition units

Structural info about known faces

9

Person identity nodes

Information about individuals (eg occupation, interests)

10

Cog system

Contains additional info (eg actors tend to have attractive faces) and influences which other components receive attention

11

Support

Double dissociation - across patients w an impairment on either face recognition or expression identification
- In a study, participants never reported putting a name to a face while knowing nothing else about that person

12

Visual Agnosia

Impairment of visual object recognition despite otherwise preserved visual abilities

13

Limitations

The model omits the first stage of processing (i.e., detecting that they‘re looking at a face)
Facial identity and facial expression may not be entirely independent
There may be multiple systems for facial expressions
The emotional system may play a far more integral role here

14

Posed expressions

lack congruent feeling (i.e. happiness)
- lack congruent feeling (i.e. happiness)

15

Spontaneous facial expressions

are known as “Duchenne” expressions.
Expressed with congruent feeling (i.e. feeling happy and smiling)
Uses the cingulate and basal ganglia.

16

Visual mental imagery

occurs when a visual STM representation is present but the stimulus is not actually being viewed
Visual imagery is accompanied by the experience of “seeing with the mind‘s eye”

17

Evidence of Interference

Baddeley and Andrade (2000)
Since visual imagery and spatial tapping are assumed to share the visual buffer, doing both simultaneously should impair performance

18

Gibson - Direct Perception

Suggested that perceptual information is used primarily in the organisation of action
Held that perception and action are closely intertwined
One influences the other without any need for complex cognitive processing
Took an ecological approach in this direct theory of perception

19

Optic Flow

Optic flow field as a pilot comes in to land, with the focus of expansion in the middle.

20

Affordances

Potential uses of objects (graspable v non-graspable)
Perceived directly
Participants are quicker to make grasping movements to objects that can be grasped

21

Strengths

Emphasized the interaction between perception and action
Captured the DORSAL vision-for-action system before it became common

22

Limitations

Processes involved in perception are much more complicated than implied by Gibson
Largely ignored the vision-for-perception (VENTRAL) system
Does not fully capture all the relevant sources of information

23

Glover

Planning-Control Model

24

Planning System

Mostly used before initiation of movement
Selects an appropriate target
Decides how the object will be grasped
Determines the timing of the movement
Uses both spatial and non-spatial information
Relatively slow
Planning depends on:
A visual representation located in the inferior parietal lobe
Motor processes in the frontal lobes and basal ganglia

25

Control System

Used after the planning system to ensure that movements are accurate
Influenced by the target object‘s spatial characteristics
Relatively fast
Control depends on:
A visual representation located in the superior parietal lobe
Motor processes in the cerebellum
The model is supported in several ways by many experimental findings
It is probable that the two systems interact in very complex ways in performing many kinds of actions

26

Monkeys
Mirror Neuron System

Formed of neurons activated when animals perform an action and when they observe another performing the same action
Facilitates imitation and understanding others‘ actions
Area F5 and superior temporal sulcus in monkeys

27

Humans
Mirror Neuron System

Regions that respond similarly to performing an action or watching others perform it:
Ventral premotor cortex
Anterior intraparietal cortex
Superior intraparietal cortex
However, these are entire areas, NOT neurons
The human mirror neuron system has yet to be detected on the neuronal level

28

Understanding Intentions

Conditions
Intention
Display: 1. Drinking out of a cup 2. Washing a cup
Action
Display: Hands grasping the cup as above, but w/o the context that might determine the intention
Content
Display: Same contexts as the intention condition but no grasping
Results
More activity was observed in brain areas forming part of the mirror neuron sys. In the intention vs. action condition

29

Change blindness

The surprising failure to detect a substantial visual change

30

Left vs. right hemisphere processing of perception
(LEFT)

DETAILS
Verbal
Analytic
High spatial frequency
Cognitive appreciation of emotions
rational/stable

31

Left vs. right hemisphere processing of perception (RIGHT)

GESTALT
Visuospatial/Perceptual
Holistic/Syncretic
Low spatial frequency
Emotions as feelings

32

Vision for Perception Issue

Visual Agnosia: can see but cannot recognize or interpret visual information, due to a disorder in the parietal lobes.
Ventral Pathway lesion

33

Vision for Action Issue

Optic Ataxia (Bálint syndrome): restriction of visual attention to single objects and a paucity of spontaneous eye movements. Bálint noted inaccurate reaching of the man's right hand
Dorsal Pathway lesion

34

VENTRAL

Object perception (what?)
form and color processing
Vision-for-perception
allocentric
perception is more based on object in environment; not self
viewpoint invariant
usually conscious; fast

35

DORSAL

motion processing
vision-for-action
egocentric
perception is based on orientation of viewer’s body
viewpoint dependent (orientation is important)
usually unconscious (don’t think how to reach for something)