Organ Systems Ch 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organ Systems Ch 2 Deck (15):


group of cells that are similar in structure and function.



The basic unit or building block of all living things.



Is a structure composed of two or more tissue types that performs a specific function for the body. ex: the small intestine, which digests and absorbs nutrients, is made up of all four tissue types.


Organ system

Is a group of organs that act together to perform a particular body function. Ex: the organs of the digestive system work together to break down foods and absorb the end products into the bloodstream to provide nutrients and fuel for all the body's cells. 11 organ systems


Integumentary Systems (skin)

Major component organs: Epidermal and dermal regions, cutaneous sense organs and glands. Function: Protects deeper organs from mechanical, chemical, and bacterial injury and drying out. Excretes salts and urea. aids in regulation of body temp. Produces vitamin D



Major component organs: Bones, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and joints. Function: Body support, and protection of internal organs. Provides levers for the muscular action. Cavities provide a site for blood cell formation.



Major component organs: Muscles attached to the skeleton. Function: Primary function is to contract or shorten; in doing so. skeletal muscles allow locomotion (running, walking, etc.), grasping and manipulation of the environment, and facial expression. Generates heat.



Major component organs: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. Function: Allows body to detect changes in its internal and external environment and to respond to such information by activation appropriate muscles or glands. Helps maintain homeostasis of the body via rapid transmission of electrical signals.



Major component organs: Pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands; ovaries, testes, and pancreas. Function: Helps maintain body homeostasis, promotes growth and development; produces chemical messengers called hormones that travel in the blood to exert their effects(s) on various target organs of the body.



Major component organs: Heart, blood vessels, and blood. Function: Primarily a transport system that carries blood containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ions, hormones, and other substances to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made; blood is propelled through the blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. antibodies and other protein molecules in the blood protect the body.



Major component organs: Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and scattered collections of lymphoid tissue. Function: Picks up fluid leaked from the blood vessels and returns it to the blood. Cleanses blood of pathogens and other debris. Houses lymphocytes that act via the immune response to protect the body from foreign substances.



Major component organs: Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. Function: Keeps the blood continuously supplied with oxygen while removing carbon dioxide. Contributes to the acid base balance of the blood via its carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system



Major component organs: Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and accessory structures including teeth, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas. Function: breaks down ingested foods to minute particles, which can be absorbed into the blood for delivery to the body cells. Undigested residue removed from the body as feces.



Major component organs: Kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Function: rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes including urea, uric acid, and ammonia, which result from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids. Maintains water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood.



Major component organs: Male: testes, prostate gland, scrotum, penis, and duct system, which carries sperm to the body exterior. Female: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, mammary glands, and vagina. Function: Male, Provides germ cells called sperm for perpetuation of the species. Female, Provides germ cells called eggs; the female uterus houses the developing fetus until birth; mammary glands provide nutrition for the infant.