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Flashcards in Organ Transplant Deck (30)
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List the most common organs to be transplanted

  1. Kidney
  2. Liver
  3. Heart


*other → pancreas, lung and intestine


what are VCAs?

Vascular composite allografts 

involve the transplantation of multiple structures that may include skin, bone, muscles, blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue

face and hand more common type of VCAs


What are the basic criteria for transplantation

  1. presence of end-stage disease in a transplantable organ
  2. failure of conventional therapy to treat the condition successfully
  3. absence of untreatable maligancy or irreversible infection
  4. absence of disease that would attack the transplanted organ or tissue



In order to get an organ transplant, candidates must:

  1. demonstrate emotional and psychological stability
  2. have an adequate support system
  3. be willing to comply w/lifelong immunosuppressive drug therapy



where do the organs for transplants come from?

  1. Cadaveric donors
    • ppl involved in trauma, determined to be neurologically dead
    • cardiopulmonary support/mechanical vent required to maintain viability of organ
  2. Living donors 
    • stem cells, kidney transplant, liver, lung and pancreas transplantation
    • can be relative, friend or stranger
    • "best fit" = someone of similar height/weight



what is the UNOS?

United Network for Organ Sharing

sets standards for transplant centers and teams, tissue typing labs, and organ procurement organizations


list some factors in decisions to allocate organs

  1. ABO blood typing
  2. tissue (histocompatibility) typing
  3. size
  4. waiting time
  5. severity of illness/degree of med urgency
  6. geo location (distance between donor and recipient)



how long are organs viable?

  • Heart → 4-6 hrs
  • Lungs → 4-6 hrs 
  • Pancreas → 24 hrs
  • Liver → 24-30 hrs
  • Kidneys → 48-72 hrs



list some pre-op pt issues 

  1. weakness
  2. possibly prolonged hospitlization
  3. fatigue
  4. extended confinement to bed or home
  5. poor functional mobility including gait
  6. poor breathing mechanics
  7. poor airway clearance



describe post-op care for an organ donor

  1. taken off mechanical vent in recovery room and transferred to general surgery or transplant ward
  2. VS and blood counts monitored
  3. keep eye out for post op bleeding
  4. pts usually out of bed and walking by POD1
  5. PT is only invovled in instances of complications



Describe post-op care for an transplant recipient

  1. post-op care focuses on:
    • allograft function
    • rejection
    • infection
    • AE of immunosuppressive drugs
  2. Complications related to:
    • surgical/medical
    • rejection
    • infection



what is the leading problem of organ transplants?

transplant rejections


list 3 drug approaches to post-transplant management

  1. induction immunosuppression
  2. maintainence immunosuppression
  3. antirejection immunosuppression



what are some PT considerations for pts on immunosupressive agents following transplantation?

  1. increased risk for infection
  2. all drugs have serious AE:
    • systemic symptoms → N/V, fever, chills
    • liver and kidney toxicity
    • mental status changes



List the types of graft rejections

  1. Hyperacute rejection
  2. Acute rejection
  3. Chronic rejection



Describe hyperacute rejections

  1. occurs 48 hrs of transplant surgery
    • graft becomes nonfunctional within hrs/days
    • usually due to ABO blood groups or HLA
  2. Usually unresponsive to trx
    • can sometimes be reversed w/vigorous pharm therapy
  3. removal of transplant and subsequent retransplantation




Describe acute rejections

  1. adapative response involving T cells mediated by CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, or both 
    • may occur within 3 months to one yr post op
    • treatable but requires early intervention
    • antirejection drugs
  2. verifying ABO compatibility and "crossmatching" between donor and recipient decreases likelihood
  3. HLA matching sig improves success rate



Describe chronic rejections

  1. most likely antibody mediated process involving T and B lymphocytes:
    • usually occurs within a few months post-op
    • gradual and progressive deterioration of graft
    • evental transplantation required
  2. manifests differently in each organ
    • lungs → bronchiolitis obliterans
    • heart → cardiac transplant vasculopathy
    • kidney → transplant nephropathys/transplant glomerulopathy
    • liver → ductopenic rejection/vanishing bile duct syndrome



what is Acute GVHD?

Acute Graft versus Host Disease

  1. causes tissue destruction via immune response
  2. contributes to post-transplant mortality in 15-40% of pts
  3. symptoms:
    • hepatitis
    • dermatitis
    • GI issues
  4. Cytokine storm



what is Chronic GVHD?

Chronic Graft vs Host Disease

  1. multiple organ toxicity
  2. develops in 15-50% of pts who survive 3 months post-transplant
  3. involves:
    • integumentary
    • Ocular
    • GI
    • range of other organ dysfunction



T/F: infections are the leading cause of critical illness, hospitilzations, morbidity and mortality following organ transplant



List the general S/S of infection

  1. temp > 100.5 F or 38C
  2. Fatigue
  3. shaking, chills, body aches
  4. sweating
  5. diarrhea lasting longer than 2 days
  6. dyspnea
  7. cough or sore throat



What is the typical LOS for an organ transplant pt?

3-16 days depending on type of transplant and complications


What should be included in the basic PT eval?

  1. VS
  2. ROM/strength
  3. integumentary assessment
  4. posture assessment
  5. pulmonary assessment
  6. endurance/activity tolerance
  7. functional mobility
  8. preparing for D/C



what are the S/S of GVHD?

  1. abdominal pain 
  2. N/V/D
  3. often accompanied by skin rash
  4. specific to organ



what are S/S of organ rejection?

  1. flu-like symptoms
  2. fever > 101
  3. pain over transplant
  4. fatigue
  5. specific to organ symptoms



MAP should be at what in post-op transplant pts?

>60-70 mmHg to ensure adequate perfusion to organs


PT interventions should focus on what with transplant pts?

  1. focus on impaired gas exchange
  2. airway clearance
  3. positioning
  4. Therex
  5. Transfer training
  6. Gait training



List some general PT guidelines for post-op transplant pts

  1. coordinate best time to treat pt
  2. monitor MAP
  3. infection control
  4. early mobilization is key
  5. modify activity as appropriate
  6. monitor VS
  7. organ rejection and exercise (can continue if mild-moderate)
  8. effects of immunosuppressive agents
  9. appropriate outcome measures
  10. activity progression



how long should strenuous exercise that places stress on the incision site be avoided?

~2 months post-op

contact sports should also be avoided for life after transplant