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Flashcards in GI Deck (60)
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1

what is located in the RUQ?

  1. liver
  2. gallbladder
  3. colon
  4. kidney
  5. duodenum
  6. small intestine

 

2

What is located in the RLQ?

  1. ascending colon
  2. cecum
  3. appendix
  4. small intestine

 

3

what is in the LUQ?

  1. stomach
  2. spleen
  3. pancreas
  4. kidney
  5. colon
  6. jejunum

 

4

what is in the LLQ?

  1. descending colon
  2. colon
  3. sigmoid colon
  4. small intestine

 

5

when is it a good time to consider GI pain referrals?

when the pt's pain pattern doesn't match the mechanism of injury and you can't find any mechanical reason for their pain

6

List common symptoms for GI dysfunction

  1. N/V/D
  2. hemoptysis
  3. Incontience/Diarrhea
  4. Heartburn (reflex)
  5. Abdominal pain
  6. Dysphagia/Odynophagia
  7. Jaundice
  8. Color changes in stool/urine
  9. Hematochezia
  10. Melena
  11. Medical hx (hernia, liver disease, etc.)
  12. substance use disorder
  13. food interolance
  14. thyroid dysfunction
  15. DM

 

7

list various types of diagnostic studies that may be conducted in the presence of GI dysfunction

  1. Laparoscopy
  2. Barium swallow
  3. Modified barium swallow study
  4. Endoscopy
  5. ERCP
  6. GI bleeding scans
  7. Upper GI scans

 

8

what is a laproscopy?

insertion of laparoscope into abdominal cavity

uses small incision and local anesthetic

can be diagnostic or therapeutic

9

what is the barium swallow study?

pt swallow barium liquid while x-ray anf fluoroscopic images examine swallowing and peristalsis of esophagus

used to ID pathologic conditions of the esophagus (propulsion of liquid through esophagus into stomach)

 

10

what is a modifed barium swallow study?

used to diagnose dysphagia (analyzes oral, pharyngeal, and upper esophagus)

11

what is an endoscopy?

insertion of endoscopic into digestive tract (esophagus, stomach, small intestine)

12

what is an ERCP?

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

uses endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat gallbladder, biliary system, pancreas, and liver problems

13

what are GI bleeding scans?

(scintigraphy) used to determine the presence and/or source of GI bleeding

14

what are Upper GI series?

used to ID disorders of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum (jejunum and ileum visualized for small bowel series)

passage of barium is visualized with imaging studies

15

List liver function/biliary tests

  1. ALT
  2. ALP
  3. AST
  4. albumin
  5. bilirubin
  6. ammonia

 

16

list pancreatic function tests

  1. lipase
  2. amylase
  3. sweat test

 

17

List some GI conditions 

  1. Dysphagia
  2. GERD
  3. PUD
  4. Dumping Syndrome
  5. GI Hemorrhage
  6. Diverticular disease
  7. Hernias
  8. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  9. Crohn's Disease (idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease → IBD)
  10. Ulcerative Colitis
  11. Morbid Obesity
  12. Encephalopathy
  13. Cholecystitis

 

18

describe the disorder Dysphagia

esophagel disoder

  1. difficulty swallowing; oropharyngeal or esophageal
  2. diagnosis:
    • MBSS
    • endoscopy
    • CT
    • MRI
  3. Causes
    • neuro conditions (stroke, TBI)
    • dementia
    • myasthenia gravis
  4. Treatment:
    • airway protection
    • nutritional support

 

19

describe the disorder GERD

esophagus/stomach disorder

  1. backflow of gastric acid into esophagus
  2. S/S:
    • heartburn
    • regurgitation
  3. Treatment:
    • diet modification
    • weight loss
    • PPIs, H2 blockers
    • Nissen fundoplication

 

20

describe the disorder PUD

esophageal/stomach disorder

  1. ulceration in the stomach or duodenum
  2. Causes → H.pylori infection or NSAIDs
  3. S/S:
    • hungerlike sensation
    • nocturnal pain
  4. Treatment:
    • lifestyle modifications
    • PPIs
    • antibiotics
    • no NSAIDs/aspirin

 

21

describe the disorder Dumping Syndrome

  1. enhanced gastric emptying interrupts normal digestive sequence
  2. can result from a number of GI surgeries
    • gastrectomy, gastric bypass, PUD surgery, Nissen fundoplication
  3. Can be early or late DS
  4. Treatment → dietary changes and meds

 

22

what is the difference between Early DS and Late DS?

  1. Early DS
    • occurs within 30 min of meal
    • palpitations, tachycardia, flushing, diaphoresis, syncope, abdominal symptoms (cramping, bloating)
  2. Late DS
    • occurs 1-3 hrs after meal
    • S/S consistent with hypoglycemia

 

23

describe the 2 types of GI hemorrahges that can occur

  1. UGIB → occurs in esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
    • caused by ulcers, gastric erosion, gastric/esophageal varices
  2. LGIB → occurs in colon and anorectum
    • caused by IBS (diverticulitis), ischemic colitis, anal and rectal lesions (hemorrhoids), ulcerative polyps and colorectal canacer

 

24

what are S/S and treatments for GI hemorrhages?

  1. S/S:
    • hematemesis
    • hematochezia
    • melena
  2. Treatment:
    • IV fluids
    • blood transfusions
    • management of causative factors

 

25

what is diverticular disease?

can be diverticulosis or diverticulitis

Diverticulosis → presence of out-pocketings which can be asymptomatic

Diverticulitis → inflammation of diverticuli (these are symptomatic)

 

 

26

Describe S/S and treatment for Diverticular disease

  1. S/S:
    • LLQ pain
    • polyuria
    • fever and elevated WBCs
    • constipation
    • N/V
  2. Treatment:
    • diet modification
    • clear liquids
    • IV fluids
    • pain meds
    • anitbiotics
    • surgery (abscess drainage, colectomy)

 

27

what is a hiatal hernia?

protrusion of abdominal structures upward through esophageal hiatus

28

List S/S of a hiatal hernia

  1. heartburn-like pain
  2. dysphagia
  3. chest pain
  4. dyspnea
  5. hoarseness

 

29

List treatments for hiatal hernais

  1. behavior modifications
  2. eating small/frequent meals
  3. bland foods w/high fiber content
  4. acid-reducing meds
  5. laparoscopic repair

 

30

what is an abdominal hernia?

protrusion of bowel that is classified by location of protrusion

(epigastric, umbilical, inguinal, femoral)