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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (19)
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1

Aldehyde

R-CHO (double bonded O)
Can be prepared from the oxidation of an alcohol.
To name aldehydes, drop the -ol from alcohol name and replace with -al (ex. Methanol becomes methanAL)

2

Ethanol (C2H5OH)

AKA ethyl alcohol and grain alcohol. Colorless, flammable liquid.
Boiling point of 78 degrees Celsius. Miscible with water, good solvent (forms solutions commonly known as tinctures).
Can be used as antifreeze b/c freezing point is -115 degrees Celsius.
Used to make acetaldehyde and ether.

3

Methanol (CH3OH)

AKA wood alcohol.
Colorless, flammable liquid w/ bp of 65*C. Miscible with water, poisonous, can cause blindness if swallowed. Can be used as fuel, solvent, denaturant to make ethanol. Unsuitable for drinking.

4

Ethylene Glycol

1,2-ethanediol
Colorless, high bp, low fp. Used as permanent antifreeze.

5

Glycerine or glycerol

1,2,3-propanetriol
Colorless, odorless, viscous, sweet liquid. Used to make nitroglycerine, resins for paint, and cellophane.

6

Methanal

Formaldehyde

7

Ethanal

Acetaldehyde

8

Carboxylic (Organic) Acids

R--COOH
Made from mild oxidation of aldehyde.
Named with -oic (ex. Methanal forms MethanOIC acid)

9

Methanoic Acid

Formic Acid

10

Ethanoic Acid

Acetic Acid (CH3COOH)

11

Glacial acetic acid

Concentrated acetic acid (ethanoic acid). Used to make cellulose acetate.

12

Ketones

R-C-R*
||
O

Formed from a slightly oxidized secondary alcohol.
Named by adding # for which carbon has double bonded O then adding -one. (Ex. Butan-2-ONE has double bond on 2nd carbon and it has 4 carbons total)

13

Ether

R-O-R*
Formed by dehydration of primary alcohol with sulfuric acid.
Shorter chain is first half of ether's name with -ane suffix changed to-OXY and longer alkane chain name is suffix (ex. If propane-O-ethane, name is ethoxypropane or ethyl propyl ether)

14

Diethyl Ether

Commonly called 'ether'
Anesthetic

15

Amine

Compound where NH2- (amide ion) replaces a hydrogen in a hydrocarbon.

16

Amides

NH2- (amide ion) replaces a hydrogen in the carboxyl group. Naming amides: the -ic (common name) or -oic (IUPAC name) replaced by -amide.

17

Esters

R-C-O-R*
||
O
Formed by reacting organic acid and alcohol
Naming: alcohol name turned to appropriate alkyl name (ethanol to ethyl) and then acid name's -ic replaced with -ate (ethanoic to ethanoATE)
Sweet scents

18

Alkanes

Saturated
C(n)H(2n+2)
As number of carbons increase, bp increases
First four alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, butane) gas at room temperature.
Homologous series
Found in petroleum and natural gas. Extracted by fractional distillation.

19

Alcohol

R--OH
If the OH is attached to an end carbon, it is a PRIMARY alcohol but if it is attached to a middle carbon, it is a SECONDARY alcohol.