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Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Deck (37)
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1

What is an organic compound?

Any compound that has carbon in it

This excludes oxides and ionic compounds

2

What is carbon is special?

Carbon has a bonding capacity of 4 which means carbon can bond extensively

3

What is an Alkane Compound?

Only single carbon bonds

General Formula: C(n) H(2n+2)

Saturated

4

What is an Alkene Compound?

Double carbon bonds are present

General Formula: C(n) H(2n)

Unsaturated

5

What is an Alkyne Compound?

Triple carbon bonds are present

General formula: C(n) H(2n-2)

6

What are the steps for naming Alkanes?

1. Find the parent chain, use appropriate root and suffix

2. Number the carbon atoms starting from the end that is closest to the branch so the numbers are lowest possible

3. Identify any branches and their location number on the parent chain

4. If more than one of the same branch exist use a multiplier (di, tri)

5. If different branches exist, name them in alphabetical order

6. Separate numbers with commas, and words from numbers with dashes

7

What are Cycloalkanes?

They are alkanes that form a closed ring

General form: C(n) H(2n)

Two less hydrogens are present than in straight chain alkanes because the two ends of the molecule are joined

Saturated and have a higher boiling point

8

How do you name cytoalkanes?

They are named by placing the prefix cyclo in front of the alkane name

If branches are present, treat the cycloalkane as the parent chain and identify the branches

Since there is no end to start the numbering, use the lowest numbers possible

9

What are Structural Isomers?

Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures

Although isomers have the same number and type of atoms, they will have different chemical and physical properties

10

What are the steps for naming Alkenes and Alkynes?

1. Find the parent chain, it must contain the multiple bond. If the bond is double the suffix will be -ene, if the bond is triple the suffix will be -yne

2. Count carbon atoms do that the multiple bond will be on the lowest possible number. Indicate the number that the multiple bond falls on directly before the suffix

3. Name branches as before

4. It is possible for a molecule to have more than one double bond. If this is the case, indicate both numbers where the double bond is formed, and change the suffix to -diene

11

What is an aromatic compound?

Contains a benzene ring structure

12

How do you name an aromatic structure?

If an alkyl branch is attached to a benzene ring, the compound is named as an alkylbenzene

If the benzene ring is a branch of a large molecule it’s called a phenyl branch

If more than one alkyl branch is attracted to a benzene ring, the branches are numbered using the lowest numbers possible, starting with one of the branches

13

What is an organic halide compound?

Organic compound where one or more hydrogen has been replaced with a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I)

Nomenclature is similar to baking branch chains of hydrocarbons but the branch name used is based on the halogen used

14

What is an alcohol compound?

An organic compound that contains the -OH functional group

15

How do you name alcohol compounds?

1. Locate the longest chain that contains an -OH attached to one of the carbon atoms. Name the parent alkane

2. Replace the -e at the end of the name of the parent alkane with -ol

3. Add a position number before the suffix -ol to indicate the location of the -OH group

4. If there is more than one -OH group, leave the -e in the name of the parent alkane and put the appropriate prefix before the suffix -ol

5. Name and number any branches on the main chain. Add the names of these branches to the prefix

16

What is a carboxylic acid compound?

A carboxyl group is composed of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and bonded to a hydroxyl group

17

What do you name a carboxylic acid?

1. Name the parent alkane

2. Replace the -e at the end of the name of the parent alkane with -oic acid

3. The carbon atoms of the carboxyl group is always given position number 1. Name and number the branches that are attached to the compound

18

What is an ester compound?

The reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol produces an ester molecule and a molecule of water

19

How do you name an ester compound?

1. Identify the main part of the ester, which contains the C = O group. This part comes from the parent chain

2. Begin by naming the parent acid but replace the -oic acid ending of the name with -oate

3. The second part is the alkyl group that is attached to the single oxygen atom. Name this as you would any other alkyl group

4. Put the names together. The alcohol name comes first

20

What are the physical properties of alkanes?

Non-polar molecules

Only intermolecular forces are London Forces

Boiling point and melting point increase with number of carbons

Insoluble in water

Higher melting point then alkenes but lower than alkynes

21

What are the physical properties of alkenes?

Non-polar molecules

Insoluble in water

Boiling points slightly lower than alkanes due to less electrons, resulting in lower London Forces

22

What are the physical properties of alkynes?

Non-polar molecule

Insoluble in water

Higher boiling point than alkanes and alkenes

23

How does branching affect physical properties of compounds?

The more branches the lower the boiling point

24

What are the physical properties of alcohols?

Much higher boiling points than hydrocarbons due to hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups

Polar molecule

25

What are the physical properties of carboxylic acids?

Have hydrogen bonding

Greater boiling point and solubility than alcohols

26

What are the physical properties of esters?

Polar but lack the -OH bond therefore do not have hydrogen bonding, so lower boiling point than both alcohols and carboxylic acids

27

What are the physical properties of organic halides?

May be polar or nonpolar

Have higher boiling points than similar hydrocarbons

28

What is fractional distillation?

Crude oil is a complex mixture of hundreds of thousands of compounds, all of which have different boiling points

We can physically separate the different components using heat

29

How does a fractional distillation tower?

A fractional distillation tower contains trays positioned at various levels

Heated crude oil enters near the bottom of the tower

The bottom is kept hot, and the temperature gradually decreases toward the top of the tower

As compounds cop to their boiling point, the condense in the cooler trays, the streams of liquid are withdrawn from the tower at various heights along the tower

30

What is cracking?

The process in which large hydrocarbons are broken into smaller fragments