Organic Compounds Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organic Compounds Deck (46):
0

Carbon has the ability to form _____,_____, and _______ bonds.

Single, double, triple

1

Carbon is a _________ element, meaning it can create millions of compounds in various ways.

Versatile

2

Carbon can have compounds shaped as ______ and ______.

rings, chains

3

This element has to be present for a compound to be considered "organic".

Carbon

4

there are ____ categories of organic compounds important to living things.

4

5

Carbon will bond with _______ other elements

most or many

6

Small, single unit carbon compounds.

Monomers

7

These are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO) and include sugar and starch.

carbohydrates

8

simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, and galactose.

monosaccharides

9

complex sugars and starches.

polysaccharides

10

these are composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen,often called hydrocarbons.

lipids

11

these are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus and are involved in genetics.

nucleic acids

12

these are built by linking subunits called Amino Acids together.

proteins

13

This macromolecule is the main source of energy for living things.

carbohydrates

14

storing energy, not being soluble in water, and having effects on metabolism are properties of...

lipids

15

storing genetic information in a double stranded helix is the job of...

DNA

16

transmitting genetic information in single stranded compound is the job of....

RNA

17

reactions that occur in living things

biochemical

18

reactions in living things that break down materials

catabolic

19

reactions in living things that build materials

anabolic

20

this is any substance that can speed up a chemical reaction

catalyst

21

a protein that acts as a catalyst by lowering the amount activation energy needed.

enzyme

22

the area on an enzyme where the reaction takes place.

active site

23

the substance an enzyme binds with.

substrate

24

what three things affect enzyme function?

temperature, pH, and inhibitors.

25

this type of inhibitor races to block the active site.

competitive

25

These are carbon compounds made by linking monomers together.

Polymers

25

These are very large carbon compounds made from polymers.

Macromolecules

25

These are double sugars, such as sucrose and lactose

Disaccharides

26

this type of inhibitor binds away from the active site and commonly shuts off/deactivates an enzyme.

non-competitive

27

This reaction builds polymers by removing water.

Condensation.

28

This reaction breaks apart polymers by adding water.

Hydrolysis

29

This is animal starch...stored in muscles and the liver.

Glycogen

30

This is plant starch...often called fiber. It's tough and flexible to give plants support.

Cellulose

30

This has three fatty acids and a glycerol.

Triglyceride

30

This lipid has two fatty acids, a glycerol, and a phosphate group.

Phospholipid

30

This lipid is composed of two long chains, one is a fatty acid the other is an alcohol.

Wax

30

This category of lipid are made of carbon rings with functional groups. Most are hormones.

Steroids.

30

This kind of lipid has no double bonds and usually come from animals.

Saturated

30

This type of lipid has one or more double bonds and usually come from plants.

Unsaturated

30

This is the name of the reaction when an enzyme binds with its substrate.

Induced fit

30

There are 20 of these and when they bond together using peptide bonds they form polypeptide chains called proteins.

Amino acids

31

Carbon compounds can have these....they determine some of the compounds properties.

Functional groups

32

Carbon has ____ electrons in its outer most energy level that it can share to form strong covalent bonds.

4

33

This is the type of bonds that link Amino Acids together to form proteins.

Peptide bonds (proteins are polypeptides!)

35

This is composed of a hydrocarbon chain and a carboxyl group.

Fatty acid