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Flashcards in Introduction To Cells Deck (39):
0

Hooke named them cells because they reminded him of...

Monastery chambers/cells

1

He discovered cells by observing cork.

Hooke

2

He observed the first living cells.

Van Leeuwenhoek

3

This instrument is the reason cells were found.

Microscope

4

The first part of the cell theory states that all living things are composed of...

One or more cells

5

The second part of the cell theory states that cells are the basic unit of

Structure and function

6

The third part of the cell theory states that new cells come from...

Existing cells

7

This type of cell is simple and lacks a nucleus

Prokaryotic

8

This type of cell is complex and has a true nucleus.

Eukaryotic

9

This type of cell has no specialized organelles and is designed for survival.

Prokaryotic

10

This type of cell has many specialized organelles and is designed for a specific job.

Eukaryotic

11

This means "tiny organ"

Organelle

12

This structure protects the cell and regulates what can enter and exit the cell.

Plasma membrane

13

The membrane is thin, flexible, and composed of many pieces,like skin, providing

Protection

14

The is the "brain" of the cell...it contains DNA and controls cell functions.

The nucleus

15

This protects the DNA in the nucleus

Envelope (membrane)

16

This keeps everything in the nucleus in place

Nucleoplasm

17

This is a dense region where ribosomes are made

Nucleolus

18

These are found in the cytoplasm and will make proteins for the cell.

Free ribosomes

19

These are found attached to the ER and will make proteins that will eventually be shipped.

Bound ribosomes

20

This is a system of tubes filled with enzymes that will synthesize hormones, detox materials, and break down lipids.

Smooth ER

21

This is a system of sacs covered in ribosomes that will modify proteins

Rough ER

22

This is a stack of hollow, flattened sacs (or pancakes).

Golgi apparatus

23

This step by the Golgi is when the protein is received and double checked.

Processing

24

This is when the Golgi wraps the protein in membrane and adds a carbohydrate "address" label.

Packaging

25

This is when the Golgi transports the protein to the cell membrane

Shipping

26

Any material wrapped in membrane to move from one place to another is called a

Vesicle

27

These are membrane enclosed catabolic enzymes that, along with a pH of 5, will digest and destroy broken down organelles and foreign material.

Lysosomes

28

These are membrane enclosed enzymes that will neutralize substance such as alcohol and poison into hydrogen peroxide, and then in water.

Peroxisomes

29

This structure of the cytoskeleton is mostly responsible for movement.

Microtubules

30

Two proteins twisted together are responsible for maintenance of shape and placement of organelles.

Microfilaments

31

These cables of twisted protein anchor down organelles and help keep shape.

Intermediate filaments.

32

These are tubes are hair-like and tail-like structures for cells.

Cilia and flagella

33

This is a tough layer of cellulose that provides plant cells with an extra layer of protection.

Cell wall

34

These are openings in the cell wall that allow water and nutrients to pass through.

Plasmodesmata

35

This is an expandable storage sac that will hold everything from water, food, enzymes to waste and organic compounds.

Vacuole

36

These are membranous sacs filled with pigments that will conduct photosynthesis.

Chloroplasts

37

These are membranous sacs filled with pigments that will give color to flowers and fruit.

Chromoplasts

38

This is a gel-like substance composed of water, enzymes, and organic compounds that will help the cell maintain shape and provides shock absorption.

Cytoplasm