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Flashcards in Organization of the Nervous System Deck (94):
1

what  is the division of the Nervous system?

CNS and PNS

2

what makes up the CNS?

what makes up the PNS?

Spinal cord + brain

Cranial nerves + ganglia + spinal nerves

3

what is another word for CNS?

neuroaxis

4

where do we find grey matter in the brain?

what makes up the grey matter?

in the cortex (cell body, dendrites and glia)

non-myelinated axons

5

where do we find most of the white matter?

what makes up the white matter?

in the inner brain

myelinated axons

6

what does the blue line divide?

Q image thumb

supratentorial from infratentorial

7

what hemisphere of the brain is usually dominant?

left hemisphere

8

what are these Brodmann numbers for?:

  1. 44, 45
  2. 22
  3. 8
  4. 4
  5. 1,2,3
  6. 17

  1. Broca
  2. Wernecke
  3. Frontal Eye field
  4. Primary motor gyrus
  5. Primary sensory gyrus
  6. Primary Visual field

9

what makes up the brainstem?

midbrain, pons, medulla

10

where do we find most cranial nerves and nuclei?

within brainstem structures

11

what is the function fo the cerebellum?

plan and execute movement and balance by comparing what the muscles do to the action that was intended to occur

12

Identify these areas

Q image thumb

1. Thalamus

2. Pineal gland

3. Superior colliculus

4. Inferior colliculus

5. Cerebellum

6. Pons Base

7. Tegmentum

8. Medulla

9. Hypothalamus

13

how do you know if there is brainstem damage?

ipsilateral cranial nerve symptoms

+

contralateral body deficit

14

where is the reticular formation in the brain?

what is its funciton?

what do you get if it is damaged?

the brainstem

control consciousness

coma

15

Name the Cranial Nerves

  1. CN 1
  2. CN 2
  3. CN 3
  4. CN 4
  5. CN 5
  6. CN 6
  7. CN 7
  8. CN 8 
  9. CN 9 
  10. CN 10
  11. CN 11
  12. CN12

  1. olfactory
  2. optic
  3. oculomotor
  4. trochlear
  5. trigeminal
  6. abducens
  7. facial
  8. vestibulocochlear
  9. glossopharyngeal
  10. vagus
  11. Accessory
  12. hypoglosseal

16

what encloses the brain?

what is its function?

the meninges

protect and isolate CNS

17

what are the 3 parts of the meninges?

what is the leptomeninges?

dura + arachnoid + pia

pia + arachnoid

18

the meninges has 2 layers that form these 2 structures?

falx cerebri

tentorium cerebelli

19

what does the dura do?

strong elastic covering which supports the brain, separates the two hemispheres from each other

 

20

what are these structures?

Q image thumb

1) falx cerebri

2) tentorium cerebelli

21

what are the spaces that are created by penetrating arteries through the dura?

virchow spaces

22

what is a meningeal herniation?

what is an example of a lesion that may lead to a meningeal herniation?

space occupying lesion 

epidural hematoma

23

what is a epidural hematoma?

what will it look like in a CT?

what can this lead to?

lesion to the side of the head, damaging the middle meningeal artery (near the pterion) and bleeding into the space between the skull and dura

In a CT lesion looks like an oval 

leads to a transtentorial herniation and may also cause duret hemorrhages

24

what is this?

Q image thumb

transtentorial herniation

25

what is this?

Q image thumb

duret hemorrhages

26

what is this?

Q image thumb

epidural hematoma

27

what is Meningitis?

what symptoms indicate meningitis?

what time frame is important?

bacterial or viral infection that affect the brain and leptomeninges

high fever, stiff neck, photophobia, phonophobia, headache, nausea, Confusion, disorientation, difficulty waking up

first 48 hours

28

identify the type of meningitis

1) caused by Neisseria meningitis and is highly contagious, there is a rash present

2) meningitis that is not contagious and has no rash

3) meningitis that follows an infection of tuberculosis and occurs frequently in immuno-compromised individuals

1) meningiococcal meningitis

2) pneumococcal meningitis

3) tuberculosis meningitis

29

what is this?

Q image thumb

bacterial meningitis

30

what is this?

Q image thumb

bacterial meningitis

31

what are the 4 key symptoms for bacterial meningitis?

nuchal rigidity, sudden high fever, and altered mental status and a rapidly spreading petechial rash

32

identify the type of meningitis

1) meningitis that occurs due to viral or immune related disease

2) meningitis due to a infection with enterovirus, and is very contagious in kids

3) meningitis that occurs mainly in immuno-compromised patients (HIV)

4) meningitis caused by spreading of a tumor from lung or breast

1) asceptic meningitis

2) viral meningitis

3) fungal meningitis

4) neoplastic meningitis

33

what are 3 tests that are done to test for meningitis?

what do you test in each?

1) Kernig sign: Stiff hamstrings that lead to inability of fully extending the leg when hip is at right angle to supine patient.

 

2) Brudzinski sign: Passive neck or single hip flexion is accompanied by involuntary flexion of both hips.

3) Lumbar puncture: you look at the opening pressure and the color of CSF 

34

what meningitis test is this?

Q image thumb

kernig sign

35

what meningitis test is this?

Q image thumb

brudzinski sign

36

when is opening pressure in lumbar puncture elevated?

when is opening pressure un lumbar puncture not elevated?

when is opening pressure un lumbar puncture not affected?

in bacterial meningitis

in viral meningitis

fungal or TB meningitis

37

when is lumbar puncture CSF color cloudy and turbid?

when is lumbar puncture CSF color normal?

when is lumbar puncture CSF color slightly cloudy?

bacterial meningitis

viral meningitis

in TB meningitis

38

what is wrong here?

Q image thumb

meningitis: you can see discoloration of the meninges

39

what types of edema can be seen with meningitis?

At what time interval do each occur?

vasogenic edema: seconds to minutes

cytotoxic edema: minutes to hours

interstitial edema: hours ++

 

40

In vasogenic edema, fluid leaks from where to where?

from blood vessel into white matter

(usually due to increased permeability in the blood-brain barrier)

41

why does cytotoxic edema occur?

due to low blood flow

42

what is interstitial edema?

when does it happen?

CSF leaking into brain tissue

when white blood cells enter the brain or CSF

43

what is this?

Q image thumb

abcess's due to meningitis

44

what is encephalitis?

what are symptoms of this?

what is the most common cause?

inflammation of CNS tissue

sudden fever, headaches, stiff neck and back, confusion

viral

 

45

what is encephalitis lethargica?

how do patients look?

atypical form of encephalitis

they are motionless, in a coma-like state

46

what is the name for the cavities in the brain that produce CSF?

What is the direction that CSF follows?

does CSF recirculate?

Ventricles

Ventricles --> subarachnoid space --> venous drainage

nope

47

what are the 4 ventricles we can find?

1 & 2) Lateral ventricles

2) Third ventricle

3) Fourth Ventricle

48

identify the ventricles

Q image thumb

A image thumb
49

how much CSF gets produced each day?

500 ml

50

what is the problem here?

Q image thumb

hydrocephalus

51

what are the 2 reasons hydrocephalus occurs?

1) due to blockage of ventricles (obstructive or non-communicating)

2) due to overproduction of CSF or decreased re-absorption (non-obstructive or communicating)

52

identify the arteries of the CNS

Q image thumb

A image thumb
53

what are the 2 main arteries that supply blood to the brain?

 

where are arteries and veins located in the brain?

1) Internal carotid arteries

2) vertebral arteries

 

in the sub-arachnoid space

54

what 2 arteries that get damaged will cause us to see bilateral symptoms when there is a vascular defect in the circle of willis?

what are the 2 branches of the internal carotid?

 

 basilar artery and anterior cerebral artery

MCA and ACA

55

identify the arteries

 

Q image thumb

A image thumb
56

what procedure can be used in order to observe the arteries? 

what do you use?

 

arteriogram, use a dye

57

what are berry aneurysms?

where do we find 90% of berry aneurysms

weak spots on arterial walls that balloon out

in the circle of willis

58

what is a subarachnoid hemorrhage?

does blood pool?

what is the main complaint patients present with?

ruptured aneurysm that leads to bleeding in the subarachnoid space

 

no

 

"worst headache of my life"

59

what is a subdural hematoma?

damage to the superior cerebral veins from trauma to back or front of head

60

what is this?

Q image thumb

a subdural hematoma

61

what are the major subdivisions of the brain?

  1. Telencephalon

  2. Diencephalon

  3. Mesencephalon

  4. Metencephalon

  5. Myelencephalon

62

what structures does the Telencephalon make up?

cerebral hemispheres

lateral ventricles

basal ganglia

63

what structures does the Diencephalon make up?

Thalamus

hypothalamus

3rd ventricle

64

what structures does the Mesencephalon make up?

the midbrain

65

what structure does the metencephalon make up?

pons

cerebellum

66

what structure does the myelencephalon make up?

medulla

4th ventricle

67

how do you call the telencephalon and diencephalon together?

how do you call the metencephalon and myelencephalon together?

prosencephalon

rhombencephalon

68

Identify the major subdivisions of the brain

Q image thumb

A image thumb
69

If you get hit in the frontal face and damage the anterior cranial fossa, what bone will you also fracture?

what symptoms do you see?

the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

 

anosmia, CSF leakage (rhinorrea), epistaxis

70

if a bullet hits someone in the head, and he/she is still alive...what type of imaging do you not do?

what type of injury will you see in this case?

MRI

intracranial bleeding

71

what is the classification of neurons due to the amount of processes they have?

how do you identify each?

what do each do?

Unipolar: 1 axon + 0 dendrites

Bipolar: 1 axon + 1 dendrite

Pseudopolar: 1 process 

• sensory system uses this type (any sensation)

Multipolar: many dendrites + many axons

• found in the CNS

72

where do we find bipolar neurons?

where do we find pseudopolar neurons?

where do we find unipolar neurons?

in Cranial Nerves

in all 1st order neurons of spinal cord

during development

73

how do we classify neurons by axonal length?

1) golgi type 1: long axons

2) golgi type 2: short axons

 

Golgi types are also called interneurons

74

how do we classify neurons by function?

1) motor

2) sensory

3) interneurons

75

what happens if you damage motor neurons?

what happens if you damage sensory neurons?

 

paralysis

can't feel or have propioception

 

76

indentify the condition that is related to this inclusion body:

  1. lipofuscin
  2. neuromelanin
  3. lewy bodies
  4. hirano bodies
  5. pick bodies
  6. negri bodies
  7. cowdry type A bodies
  8. lafora bodies

  1. old age
  2. parkinsons (see a loss of it)
  3. parkinsons or lewy body disease
  4. alzheimers
  5. picks disease or frontotemporal disease
  6. rabies
  7. herpes encephalitis
  8. myoclonic epilepsy

77

what is this inclusion body?

what disease is it related to?

Q image thumb

lewy body

parkinsons

78

what is this inclusion body?

what disease or condition is it related to?

Q image thumb

lafora body

myoclinic seizure

79

what is this condition?

Q image thumb

picks disease

80

what condition or disease is this?

Q image thumb

pick's disease

81

how are pick bodies described?

ball shaped

82

how do we classify axonal transport?

how fast is each?

 

what molecule moves material forward? backward?

what material gets transported forward?

what material gets transported backward?

  1. fast axonal transport = 200-400 mm/day
  2. slow axonal transport = 1-5 mm/day
  3. fast retrograde transport = 100-200 mm/day

 

forward = kinesin --> vesicles and proteins

retrograde/backward = dynein --> recycled membrane and lysosomes

83

what nerves are capable of regenerating?

why?

PNS nerves

due to the arrangement of the Schawnn cells

84

what is chromatolysis?

when there is neuronal damage and the nucleus moves away from the region of the axon hillock while the nissl body moves to the periphery

85

what is this?

Q image thumb

chromatolysis

86

what is this?

when does it happen?

Q image thumb

neuronophagia

when there is damage to the neuron and it cant be fixed so microglia cover the affected neuron

87

what are the glial cells?

astrocytes, ependymal, oligodendrocytes, microglia

88

what do glial cells do?

  • provide structure and support for neurons
  • produce CSF
  • help in forming the Blood-brain barrier
  • form scars and help healing
  • myelinate neurons

89

what are the 2 types of supporting tissues?

which tissue does the PNS contain?

which tissue does the CNS have?

fibrous and glial

fibrous tissue

glial tissue except for the meninges which is fibrous

90

there are 2 types of pain systems, what are they?

what are type 4 or C nerve fibers? is it myelinated?

 

alpha motor axons innervate what?

wht do gamma motor axon do?

fast and slow

they are slow pain and temperature

not myelinated, it is the only 1 like this

 

innervate the extrafusal muscle fibers

innervate the intrafusal muscle fibers

 

91

a epidural hematoma can lead to what clinical signs?

1) can lead to transtentorial herniation

2) duret hemmorrhage

3) lucid period of minutes

4) fractured pterion

5) oval shape in CT

6) bleed in between dura and arachnoid

92

what can a transtentorial herniation lead to?

loss of consciousness

duret hemorrhage

compression of CN 3 (ptosis & myadriasis)

 

93

damage to a brodmann area on one side will have symptoms on which side?

What will you see if you have damage to left Brodmann area 4?

on the opposite side

 

you will see paralysis of the right side as well as a babinski sign

94

what do i have to do to get broca's aphasia?

damage to 44, 45  on the left side