the meninges is composed of these 3 layers..
what is the dura?
what are the 2 layers that make it up?
these layers are close to what structure?
both these layers separate only when?
what is another name for the dura?
Tough, outermost layer of the meninges that follows the contour of the skull.
1) Endosteal layer = close to the skull
2) Meningeal layer = close to the meninges
these 2 layers separate only when they form the sinuses
where do we find the arachnoid layer?
where do we find the pia layer?
what is the name given to the space in between the arachnoid and the pia?
beneath the dura
beneath the arachnoid, following the brain surface
the subarachnoid space
what do we find in the subarachnoid space?
arteries, veins and CSF
what connects the arachnoid to the pia?
what is another name for the arachnoid and the pia?
trabeculae = ligaments
what is the most common place for a subdural hematoma?
what are the 2 meningeal layers inflammed in meningitis?
the area close to the superior sagittal sinus above the falx cerebri
what is the blood supply to the meninges?
- Internal carotid
- Ascending pharyngeal
what do you call the trabeculae that are in the spinal cord?
from where does the middle meningeal artery branch off?
where do we find the middle meningeal artery running through?
Where do we need to get hit in order to damage the middle meningeal artery and get a epidural hematoma?
from the maxillary artery coming from the internal carotid
under the pterion
in the side of the head, at the pterion
what is the function of the tentorium cerebelli?
what is the function of the falx cerebri?
restrict side to side movement
restrict side to side movement
what is meningitis?
what are the symptoms?
bacterial or viral infection that affects the leptomeninges and spinal cord
high fever, stiff neck, headaches, nausea and vomiting, photophobia and nuchal rigidity. Can be of sudden onset. Confusion, disorientation and difficulty waking up are key signs.
what is the ventricular system?
what is the CSF?
it is the lining in the brain that makes CSF
fluid that cushions the brain, maintains its shape through bouyancy, removes waste and provides a pathway for horomes
what is the total amount of CSF in the brain?
what is the normal pressure of CSF?
why is it important to know this?
what is the average amount of CSF produced?
150-180 mm Hg
important in order to do a lumbar puncture
what is the Ventricular pathway?
(the pathway CSF follows)
lateral ventricles > foramina of monroe or interventricular foramen > 3rd ventricle
3rd ventricle > Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) > 4th ventricle
4th ventricle -> central cannal of spinal cord and subarachnoid space (median aperture = magendi, and 2 lateral = Lushka)
identify the parts of the ventricular system
what are the 3 foramens used by the CSF in order to leave the Ventricular system?
where do each go?
1) Medial = Magendie = to the medial canal of the spinal cord
2) Lateral = Lushka = the subarachnoid space
3) Lateral = Lushka = the subarachnoid space
what are the cysterns foudn in the ventricular system?
Large spaces in the subarachoid space where the arachnoid membrane does not closely follow the surface of the brain.
Identify the cisterns
how does CSF get out of the brain?
It drains into the sinuses via extensions from the subarachnoid space called subarachnoid granulations (villa)
what are these?