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Flashcards in Neurodevelopment (doherty) Deck (73):
1

What happens in the 3rd week of neurodevelopment?

the ectoderm thickens and becomes the neural plate

 

2

what will the neural plate do?

fold to form the neural groove

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3

what will the neural plate with the neural groove form?

the neural crest which will close forming a tube...the neural tube

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4

identify the 2 orange lines

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left: neural tube

right: notochord

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5

what are the anterior and posterior neuropores?

at which week do the neuropores close?

openings in the neural tube that connect the tube with amniotic cavity

 

4th week

6

what will the anterior neuropore become?

 

 

lamina terminalis

 

7

identify the top and bottom lines

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top: anterior neuropore

bottom: posterior neuropore

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8

what is another name for the anterior neuropore?

 

what is another name for the posterior neuropore?

cranial

 

caudal

9

identify the blue and orange line

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blue: pericardial bulge

orange: otic placodes

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10

what will the placodes become?

Cranial Nerves 1 and 7

11

what will the olfactory placodes become?

 

what wil the otic placodes become?

they will become the olfactory nerve and bulbs

 

the organ of corti, spiral ganglion, cristae, maculae utriculi and sacculi, vestibular ganglion and CN 8

12

what are the cells of the neural tube?

what will each develop into?

  1. marginal layer (outer): develops into white matter
  2. mantle layer (intermediate): develops into grey matter (neurons and glia)
  3. neuroepithelial (inner): develops into the lining of the central canal of the spinal cord and ventricles

13

what is another name for neuroepithelial layer?

ependymal layer

14

where do we find alpha-feta protein?

if there are altered levels of alpha feta protein, what does this indicate?

what disease can be developed if alpha-feta protein is decreased?

in amniotic fluid

possible neural tube defect

down syndrome

15

what will the neural crest become?

  1. Dorsal root ganglia

  2. Spinal nerves

  3. Ganglia of cranial nerves

  4. Cranial nerves

  5. ANS ganglia

  6. Leptomeninges (Pia and arachnoid)

  7. Schwann cells

  8. Chromaffin cells (adrenal medulla)

  9. Pigment cells (melanocytes)

16

what is a disease that can result from problem with the neural crest cells, specifically the neurofibromin protein?

 

In this disease there is a problem with what? what will this result in?

neurofibromatosis

tumor suppression

neurofibromas, pigmented lesions (cafe au lait spots), pigmented iris hamartomas (lisch nodules)

17

what will the notochord become?

what is the function of the notochord before it becomes the other part? how does it do it?

the nucleus pulposus

helps in neurodevelopment of the motor neurons by producing sonic hedgehog protein

18

what happens at the end of the 4th week with the anterior portion of the neural tube?

 

 

it develops into 3 primary vesicles

19

what are the 3 primary vesicles that come from the anterior portion of the neural tube?

  1. Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)
  2. Mesencephalon (midbrain)
  3. Prosencephalon (forebrain)

20

what happens with the anterior portion of the neural tube at the end of the 5th week?

name the structures

the 3 primary vesicles will further develop

1) Prosencephalon: Telencephalon and Diencephalon

2) Mesencephalon: remains as Mesencephalon

3) Rhombencephalon: Metencephalon, Myelencephalon

21

what will the telencephalon become?

cerebral hemispheres

basal ganglia

lateral ventricles

olfactory bulbs

22

what will the diencephalon become?

epithalamus 

hypothalamus

thalamus

pineal gland

3rd ventricle

optic nerve

optic chiasm

23

what will the mesencephalon become?

midbrain 

cerebral aqueduct

24

what will the metencephalon give rise to?

pons

cerebellum

upper part of the 4th ventricle

 

25

To what structures will the myelencephalon give rise to?

medulla

lower part of 4th ventricle

26

what are commissures?

which commissure develops first? second? third?

bundles of axons that connect one hemisphere with the other

1- anterior commissure

2- hippocampal commissure

3- corpus callosum

27

what is the order of neurodevelopment in weeks?

week 0 = conception

week 3 = neural plate develops

week 4 = neural plate completely developed

week 4/5 = development of 1ry vesicles

week 6 = development of telencephalon from 1ry vesicles

weeks 12-22 = development of corpus callosum

4th month = myelination begins

4th-8th month = development of sulci and gyri

28

Alar and Basal plates are present from where to where in the Nervous System?

what cells make up the alar and basal plates?

from midbrain to spinal cord

 

neuroblasts

29

what will neuroblast cells of the alar plate in the spinal cord become?

waht will neuroblast cells of the basal plate in the spinal cord become?

what will neuroblast cells of the alar plate in the brainstem become?

what will neuroblast cells of the basal plate in the brainstem become?

the dorsal horn

the anterior horn

afferent or sensory component of cranial nerves

efferent or motor component of cranial nerves

30

what separates the alar and basal plates from the midbrain through the spinal cord?

sulcus limitans

31

what kind of information enters the dorsal horns?

waht kind of infromation enters the anterior horns?

what type of neural matter (grey or white) will the ventral and dorsal horn be?

sensory information from dermatomes 

motor information

grey mater both

32

most cranial nerves can be found where?

midbrain and medulla

33

what does the cerebellum do?

what side of the body will each hemisphere of the cerebellum control?

what will the cerebellar vermis controll?

 

balance and coordination by both hemispheres

left hemisphere controls left leg and arm

right hemisphere controls right leg and arm

vermis = trunk 

34

what helps the cortex neurons reach their destination during development? from where to where do these go?

 

what happens when cortex neurons have to climb to far places in the cortex?

climbing using radial glial cells

from inside to outside

 

it increases the posibility of errors --could explain schizophrenia

35

from where does the anterior pituitary come from?

from where does the retina come from?

neurons that have soma outside the CNS come from where?

all neurons that have soma inside the CNS come from where?

what moves the CSF?

from oral ectoderm or Rathke's pouch

the diencephalon

neural crest

neural tube

cilia from ependymal cells

36

what is the APGAR scale?

scale used to evaluate a newborn's cardio and neurological functions

37

give the name for what the score should be for the APGAR scale

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38

what is considered a good APGAR scale?

what is a normal score?

what is a low score?

9-10

7

0-3

39

what is this?

periventricular leukomalacia

40

what is periventricular leukomalacia?

is it more frequent unilateral or bilateral?

what can it result in?

it is a potential cause of what?

a white matter infarct that happens during a episode of hypotension in premature infants

bilateral

diplegia or quadriplegia

cerebral palsy

41

what type of spina bifida is this?

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42

what is spina bifida occulta?

defect in the vertenral arch 

asymptomatic 

look for a small patch of hair

43

what are the spina bifida cystica types?

1) spina bifida cystica with meningocele

2) spina bifida cystica with meningomyelocele

3) spina bifida cystica with myelocele

4) spina bifida cystica with syringomyeloce

44

what is spina bifida cystica with meningocele?

what is spina bifida cystica with meningmyelocele?

what is spina bifida cystica with myelocele?

what is spina bifida cystica with syringomyelocele?

only the meninges projects outside

the meninges and the spinal cord herniate outside

open neural tube lies in the surface of the back

meningomyelocele witha  huge central canal

45

what is anancephaly?

why does it happen?

how soon can it be detected in utero?

how?

abscense of skull and cerebral hemispheres

lack of closure of anterior neuropore

14 weeks

elevated AFP

46

what is this?

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anancephaly

47

what is this type of spina bifida cystica?

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48

what is this type of spina bifida cystica?

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spina bifida cystica with meningomyelocele

49

what is this type of spina bifida cystica?

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50

what is this type of spina bifida cystica?

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syringomyelocele

51

what is anancephaly with raschischisis?

anancephaly with non closure of the posterior en of the neural tube

52

what is this?

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holoprosencephaly

53

what is holoprosencephaly?

when there is fusion of midline structures

Ex: ventricle (1 large), eyes (cyclopia) 

54

what is porencephaly?

when there is an infarct and a cyst forms

55

what is this?

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porencephaly

56

what is lissencephaly?

brain with no gyri

57

what is tuberous sclerosis?

 

what are 2 symptoms that can be found early in life?

when there is no difference between gray and white matter, resulting in large white gyri

 

retardation and seizures

58

what is another name for tuberous sclerosis?

bournville's disease

59

what is this?

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tuberous sclerosis (bourneville)

60

what is the most common cause of hydrocephaly?

fetal viral infection with toxoplasmosis gandii or CMV

61

what is hydrocephaly?

when there is excess CSF enlargin the skull

62

what is hydrancephaly?

how do you check for this?

disease where the cerebral hemispheres are absent and replaced with large cysts with CSF

if flashlite is used against skull, skull will appear transilluminated  (light will pass through skull without problem)

63

what is Arnorld Chiary syndrome type 1 ?

asymptomatic, herniated tonsil of cerebellum less than 3 mm below foramen magnum

64

what is Arnorld Chiary syndrome type 2?

tonsilar cerebellar herniation with cerbellar vermins included 

65

what is Arnorld Chiary syndrome type 3?

Herniation of brainstem and cerebellum outside

of skull. (a encephalocele)

 

66

what is arnorld chiari type 4?

Herniation of brainstem outside of skull with lack of development of cerebellum

 

 

67

what is this?

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arnorld chiari type 4

68

what is dandy walker syndrome?

very large dilation of 4th ventricle with no vermis in cerebellum

69

what is agenesis of the corpus callosum?

so ...why does this happen?

at what stages does the problem start?

 

ppl born without a corpus callosum

axons that should cross..dont..and form probst bundles on same side of brain

3rd-12th week of gestation

70

what is this?

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agenesis of corpus callosum

71

what is a coloboma?

to where can it extend to?

Congenital defect resulting in a fissure of part of 

the eye, most often the iris, usually inferior/nasal

(Coloboma Iridis)

 

to the ciliary body

72

what will a coloboma of the retina impair?

what will a coloboma iridis impari?

vision

nothing

73

what is complete Heterochromia Iridum?

what is partial Heterochromia Iridum?

what may cause heterochromia iridium if the affected iris is lighter?

what may cause heterochromia iridium if the affected iris is darker?

  • one iris different color from the other.
  • part of one iris a different color.
  • Simple’ heterochromia, no ocular/visual problems.  

    Horner’s and Hirschsprung’s disease.

  • Lisch nodules (harmartomas of the iris, in NF 1).

    Sturge-Weber syndrome.