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Flashcards in Orthopaedic Assessment Deck (75)
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Which movements does pronation of the ankle include?

Abduction, knee version, dorsiflexion.


Overpronation is a postural deviation/injury. It results when the foot moves either too far or too fast through the phases of pronation, placing more weight on the lateral/medial side of the foot during gait.

Postural deviation, lateral


True or false?
Calcaneal valgus is a lateral deviation of the calcaneus.



True or false?
Calcaneal varus is a medial deviation of the calcaneus.



List three possible factors that will cause overpronation.

Tibialis posterior weakness, calcaneal valgus, genu valgum


The spring happening at the distal tibial fibular syndesmosis is called syndesmosis sprain. It is often called a _______________ because the location of this joint is superior/inferior to the ankle joint.

High ankle sprain, superior


Which two ligaments found on the lateral malleolus are often involved in the sprains to the distal tibial fibular syndesmosis?

Anterior tibiofibular ligament and posterior ligament. Both are found in their respective places on the highest points above the lateral malleolus.


What are the extreme movements that can create a syndesmosis sprain?

Abduction, adduction, dorsiflexion


Morton's Naroma is the condition due to neurological dysfunction/mechanical compression. It causes pain in the 4 foot and toes.

Mechanical compression.


The primary pathology in Morton's Naroma involves the compression of the ____________, which pass between the metatarsal heads.

Plantar nerves


Morton's neuroma frequently happens between the _______ and ________ metatarsal heads because the space between heads smallest here.

Third and fourth


The fascial bands connecting the malleolus to the calcaneus is called the ________________.



The space under the retinaculum connecting the malleolus to the calcaneus is known as the ________________.

Tarsal tunnel


Which nerve passes through the retinaculum connecting the malleolus to the calcaneus?

The tibial nerve. Tarsal tunnel syndrome results when the structure is exposed to compressive or tensile stress within the tarsal tunnel.


Anterior shin splints happen in the distal/proximal, anterior/posterior, lateral/medial region of the leg. It is attributed to overuse of the plantar flexor/dorsiflexor muscles.

Proximal, anterior, lateral, dorsiflexor.


Which muscles may be involved in anterior shin splints?

Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallicus longus


ACL it is the most frequently injured ligament of the knee. 85% of ACL sprain involve a complete rupture. What degree of ligament sprain most frequently happens for the ACL sprain?



Which three factors may contribute to ACL sprain?

Twisting of the knee, deceleration, stopping suddenly in the midst of running.


ACL injuries coincide with damage to other ligaments. The term "Unhappy Triad" or "terrible Triad" is used to describe concurrent damage to what three structures of the knee?

The ACL, MCL, and medial meniscus.


Patellofemoral pain syndrome is anterior/posterior your knee pain variable origin primarily caused by a patellar tracking disorder.



The symptoms of patellofemoral pain syndrome me become worse if the knee is held in a flexed position for long periods, such as sitting in a movie theater. This pain pattern associated with long periods of need flexion is known as a ____________ sign, or _________sign.

Positive movie, theatre


Iliotibial band friction syndrome is an overuse condition and results from repetitive flexion and extension of the hip/knee in activities, where it is the primary cause of medial/lateral hip/knee pain.

Knee, lateral, knee


Excess tension in the iliotibial band is the primary cause of ITB friction syndrome. It is due to hypertonicity of the __________ and ___________ that pull on the band.

TFL and gluteus maximus


Meniscal damage is generally caused by excessive compulsive loads. In some cases, tensile stress on the meniscal attachment will cause the tear. True or false?



Meniscal damage is usually an acute/chronic injury, associated with twisting the knee during the weight-bearing activity.



What is the difference between tendonosis and tendinitis?

Tendinosis is the abnormal condition of the tendon due to collagen degeneration; whereas tendinitis is an inflammatory condition of the tendon, where tendon may tear.


Patellar tendinosis is also called _____________. The strong concentric/eccentric load placed on the quadriceps tendon during landing from a jump often causes this condition.

Jumpers knee, eccentric


Patellar tendinosis is an acute condition. True or false?

False. This is a chronic condition.


Muscle strains can develop in several muscles around the knee, but are particularly common in the hamstrings. Why?

Hamstrings are powerful muscle group that plays a fundamental role in locomotion and maintaining static postures, making them more vulnerable to strains


A posterior tilt is when the pelvis rotates forward/backward, and the lumbar spine adopts more of a hypolordotic/hyperlordotic position. What muscles cause this condition?

Backward, hypolordotic, hamstrings and abdominals are short and tight.