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AOTA PDFs: Muscoloskeletal Impairments > Osteoarthritis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteoarthritis Deck (20)
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Primary osteoarthritis

localized or generalized joint involvement and no known cause


Secondary osteoarthritis

related to trauma, congenital abnormalities, infection, or necrosis


Bouchard’s nodes develop on the ___ joints



Which type of nodes develop on the PIP joints?



Heberden’s nodes on the ___ joints



Which type of nodes develop on the DIP joints?



Symptoms of osteoarthritis include

joint pain, stiffness, limited ROM, and local inflammation and crepitus of the joint. Pain and stiffness occur with activity and are relieved by rest


OT areas to evaluate with osteoarthritis

Occupations that rely on lower-extremity flexibility and strength should be evaluated for clients with knee or hip OA.

IADLs that require walking, standing, squatting, and balance are potentially problematic.

Rest and sleep may be disturbed by pain.
Job analyses for clients who are workers may be necessary.

The effect of OA on play and leisure activities should be explored.


For clients with osteoarthritis, the main factors affecting participation are

pain and joint changes such as instability, loss of motion, weakness, and fatigue.


In addition to physical factors, clients with OA should be screened for

cognitive and psychosocial deficits.


Although OA does not directly affect cognition, symptoms such as pain, sleep disturbances, depres-
sion, and medications can all have an effect on

attention span, short-term memory, and problem-
solving skills.


Psychosocial deficits in clients with OA include

fear of pain, changes in body image, perception of self as a sick person, continuous uncertainty about the course and progression of the disease, sexual dysfunction, altered roles, and loss of income because of the inability to work.


TKR precautions include

not putting a pillow under the knee while in bed; resting feet on the floor when sitting to increase ROM; wearing an immobilizer as instructed; and avoiding kneeling, squatting, or twisting the knee


Hand function related to thumb mobility may be severely restricted by pain and instability. OA of the thumb CMC joint should include an assessment of

thumb joint ROM and stability


Additionally, a _______ evaluation should be performed in clients with OA



What type of PAMS can be used for clients with OA?

Superficial heating agents such as paraffin, fluid
therapy, hot packs, microwave packs, hydrotherapy, and electric stimulation—can be used to reduce pain and increase ROM


What type of ROM is best to encourage for clients with OA

AROM exercises are encouraged; PROM is used only if AROM is precluded.
3. Pinching exercises may be contraindicated with CMC joint instability because of stresses on the


What type of strengthening exercises are best for clients with OA

Isometric or isotonic strengthening exercises can be performed to tolerance. Low-impact aerobic
conditioning exercises can increase flexibility, strength, endurance, and cardiovascular fitness.


_____ splints may be prescribed to provide stability to the CMC joint during pinching activities



Principles of joint protection and fatigue management are as follows

1. Respect pain.
2. Maintain muscle strength and joint ROM.
3. Use each joint in its most stable anatomical and functional plane.
4. Avoid positions of deformity.
5. Use the strongest joint available.
6. Ensure correct patterns of movement.
7. Avoid staying in one position for long periods.
8. Avoid starting an activity that cannot be stopped immediately if it becomes too stressful.
9. Balance rest and activity.
10. Reduce force and effort.