OTA 110 - Ch. 1, 2, 5 Terms Flashcards Preview

OTA 110 - Mental Health > OTA 110 - Ch. 1, 2, 5 Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in OTA 110 - Ch. 1, 2, 5 Terms Deck (72)
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1

Psychosocial

Sense of self and identity; affects how we engage in occupations. Includes psychological, cognitive, social, cultural and spiritual aspects of occupation.

Components:
• Social environment
• Support system
• Education
• Occupation
• Economic Situation
• Access to healthcare/other resources
• Criminal record/legal issues

2

Mindfulness

Staying in the here and now; bringing back to the present. Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment and non-judgmentally.

3

Defense Mechanisms

Methods used to deal with uncomfortable feelings, operating unconsciously. (Conscious example: suppression.)

4

Denial

Defense mechanism—when refusing to believe something that causes anxiety.

5

Projection

Defense mechanism—believing an unacceptable feeling of one's own belongs to someone else.

6

Rationalization

Defense mechanism—making excuses for unacceptable behavior/feelings.

7

Conversion

Defense mechanism—conflicts turned into real physical symptoms.

8

Regression

Defense mechanism—functioning at a more primitive developmental level; going back to immature behavior pattern.

9

Idealization

Defense mechanism—overestimating someone or valuing them more than the real personality/person seems to merit.

10

Compensation

Defense mechanism—efforts to make up for personal deficits; can also be a conscious effort.

11

Schedule of Reinforcement

How often therapist gives reinforcement.

Continuous: after every performance of desired behavior (best in beginning/short-term)

Intermittent: only occasional reinforcement (most powerful and best in long-term); ex. gambling

12

Extinction

Stopping a behavior completely by removing reinforcement/changing consequences of behavior. Ex.: planned ignoring.

13

ABCDE Model

Cognitive-Behavioral model, where rational and irrational thoughts are realized to change psychological experiences.

A=Activating event
B=Belief
C=Consequence
D=Disputation
E=(Corrective) Emotional experience

A - activator: Public Speaking
B - beliefs: I will vomit; People will judge me; I’m bad at this
C - consequence: Draw a blank; Get a bad grade; Hold breath
D - dispute: I never vomit; I know the material
E - corrective experience: stay calmer; kinder to self; more confidence

14

Cognitive-Behavioral Theory

What we think (cognition) determines how we act (behavior). Thoughts provoke feelings that affect behavior. Therapy involves understanding/changing negative cognitions to change behavior. Altering the ATTRIBUTION of events.

15

Hallucinations vs. Delusions

Psychotic symptoms that often accompany schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

Hallucinations: Sensory experience that does not correspond to reality.

Delusions: Belief contrary to reality experienced by others.

16

Comorbidities

Simultaneous existence of 2 or more disorders in same person.

17

DSM-5

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Clinical guidebook using codes for assessing/diagnosing mental disorders. OTs use it for mental disorders that impair function. Includes cultural variations/sensitivities; recognizes symptoms occur at varying levels of severity and in many disorders.

18

Gender Dysphoria

Experiencing distress with the sex person is born with, and associated gender roles.

19

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Neurodevelopmental disorder; cluster of disorders occurring in very early childhood and impairing development of social communication and interaction. Restricted or repetitive motor behavior may also be present. Process and understand sensation differently.

20

ADHD

Neurodevelopmental disorder; child has shorter attention span than is normal for that age. Jumping from activity to activity with high level of energy, but inability to concentrate and complete tasks.

21

Schizophrenia

Specific psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations or delusions, and deterioration in functioning from a previously higher level.

22

Bipolar Disorders/Bipolar I

Lifelong disorder characterized by extremes of mood and sometimes psychotic symptoms (delusions/hallucinations). Person alternates between moods, often depressive to manic. Bipolar I is more serious and is distinguished by episodes of mania. Bipolar I affects functioning worse than Bipolar II, and cognitive functions are impaired as well. (Bipolar II fluctuates between hypomania and depression.)

23

Manic vs. Depressive

Manic = mood that is elevated (high), expansive (includes everything/everyone), and/or irritable. May participate in inconsistent behavior, and show poor judgment.

Depressive = mood that is low spirited, with loss of interest in pleasurable activities. Can occur with suicidal thoughts, inactivity and feelings of worthlessness.

24

Major Depressive Disorder

Extended and severe sadness. Person has had one or more major depressive episodes lasting 2 weeks or more. Depressed mood most of day, nearly every day; significant impairment of social/occupational functioning, low interest or care in ADLs.

25

Phobia

Fear in response to a certain stimulus. Functioning is impaired when it interferes with performance of tasks related to occupational roles.

26

Panic Disorder

Anxiety disorder in which patient has repeated and unexpected panic attacks characterized by symptoms like shortness of breath, racing pulse, dizziness and nausea. After many attacks, the person becomes fearful of attacks and is generally anxious.

27

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Patient is anxious about 2 or more unrelated situations and no other diagnosis can account for anxiety.

28

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessions and/or compulsions which are time-consuming and distressing to patient and which interfere with functioning.
Obsession=unwanted intrusive thought or impulse.
Compulsion=repetitive behavior in response to obsession.

29

Trichotillomania

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in which patient pulls out body hair. Could also be due to sensory processing deficits.

30

Excoriation

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in which patient picks at or peels the skin. Could also be due to sensory processing deficits.