Flashcards in OTA 110 - Ch. 13 Evaluations Deck (18)
Interpretation/Inference vs. Observation
Interpretation/Inference= Process of giving meaning to what we have observed. Why they did it? How what they said relates to what we know of them?
Observation= Process of taking note of behavior or anything else we can take in through our senses. What we actually see or hear.
Evaluation vs. Assessment vs. Intervention vs. Outcome
Evaluation= Foundation of intervention; supplies info on which the plan is built; to identify problems client faces and their goals/resources.
Assessment= Refers to specific tests, instruments, interviews and other measures used in evaluations.
Intervention= Treatment plan; client goals are starting point.
Outcome= Results of interventions. Most important outcome is improved ability to engage in occupations.
When a therapist feels confident that an OTA is skilled in a particular assessment and would obtain the same results to what the OT would obtain with that instrument. Established by using standardized or criterion-referenced tests and comparing results to OT’s. OT is responsible for evaluating/developing this in the OTA.
Top-down vs. Bottom-up vs. Environment-first Evaluation
Top-down= Evaluation process that begins with client’s goals; no other data collected until client perspective is understood. Ie: occupational profile
Bottom-up= Evaluation begins with factors impeding occupational engagement. Necessity comes before learning client’s goals. Ie: evaluating wound of burn victim first; or assessing cognitive level first in psychiatric setting.
Environment-first= Appropriate when safety is a factor. Ie: initially assessing home for elderly client to reduce falls.
Norm vs. Criterion Referenced Assessments
Norm-referenced= assessment provides tables of normative data (collected from many tests). May have cultural or other bias (ie: tests were only in English, but your client is Spanish-speaking); (like when graded on a curve.)
Criterion Referenced= Standard against which an individual’s performance is measured. (Ie: reading level; or like when graded strictly on achievement.)
Reliability vs. Validity
Reliability= Consistency of results when test is repeated.
Validity= Degree to which test measures what it says it is measuring (how accurately measurable is the thing you are assessing? Ie: ROM vs cognition).
“Comprehensive Occupational Therapy Evaluation.” A widely-used observation checklist. Can be for single or series of observations of client performing a task. Lists 25 behaviors and provides scale to rate them. Divided into 3 areas: General Behavior, Interpersonal Behavior, and Task Behaviors. Rated 0 (normal) to 4 (extremely abnormal). Can be recorded up to 15 sessions.
Occupational Performance History Interview, v 2.0. Used to obtain occupational history, determine functioning in occupational roles, and estimate balance betw occupational and leisure activities. Has 3 parts: Semistructured Interview, Rating Scales, and Life History Narrative. Uses 4-point rating system to rate person’s occupational functioning. Well-developed, research-based and useful method
Mini-Mental Status Examination. An older assessment of mental functions/cognitive test. (SLUMS may be more accurate.)
Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Mental function assessment/cognitive test.
Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination. Mental function/cognitive test. Quick screening method that takes about 15 minutes. May be more sensitive to mild neurocognitive impairment than older methods. 11 Items designed to test long and short term memory, working memory, and other cog functions. (ie: date/time, calculations, shapes.) Max score is 30. Scored differently based on person’s education level.
Cognitive test in which client traces path between spots on a paper (connect-the-dots in sequences). May be used for driving assessment, etc.
(RC). Provides info on occupational roles as perceived by client. Short written inventory for people with basic literacy and intact cognition. 10 major life roles and unspecified 11th that is added by client. Client indicates if role is performed in past/present/future; and to rate role’s value. Research-backed. Quick assessment tool.
Assessment of interests by rating list of activities as casual/strong/nonexistent interest. Many versions exist. Used to discuss how person spends leisure time, how much enjoyment leisure provides, and what activities might be renewed or developed.
Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills. Assesses several skills in the areas of personal care, safety and health, money mgmt., transportation, use of phone, and work and leisure. (ie: testing if person can make change by pretending to sell something to them and seeing if they accept your change as correct.) Includes brief reading/writing test. Rated as “independent” or “needs assistance.” Appropriate for screening but does not accurately measure function in community.
Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Structured interview that measures client’s perceptions about his own performance. Foundation for establishing priorities for intervention because it elicits client’s goals. (NOTE: Requires OT to administer or to supervise OTA.)
Obtained by top-down assessment. Interviews, questionnaires, conversations provide background on client’s occupational history and interests, experiences, goals and priorities.