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Flashcards in Other Biochem Stuff He Just Told Us Deck (28)
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1

Collagen Structure

Triple strand helical structure

2

Collagen AA Sequence

Repeating AA sequences with a lot of Gly, Pro, Hyp, and Hyl

3

Hydroxylation of Pro and Lys 4 Requirements

O2, alpha-ketoglutarate, Fe, and VITAMIN C

4

VITAMIN C DEFICIENCY

WEAK COLLAGEN FROM LOW HYDROXYLATION LEVELS

5

Crosslinking in Collagen

From lysine residues

6

3 Diseases Associated w/ Collagen

Scurvy, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Osteogenesis Imperfecta

7

Desmine Cross-link

For elastin NOT collagen

8

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) Notable Sugar Unit

N-acylated amino sugar

9

Slippery Nature of GAGs

"Resilience" from high number of sulfate negative charges

10

Mucopolysaccharidoses (def & 4 diseases)

Enzyme deficiency in GAG degradation
Hurler, Hunter, Sanfilippo, and Sly syndromes

11

2 Things that Lower Hb Affinity for O2

Lower pH
2,3-Biphosphoglycerate shifts to T conformation

12

Mech of Sickle Cell Anemia

Valines on Beta subunits bind, polymerizing into long rope-like fibers which get stuck in capillaries, block bloodflow, and cause severe painheadaches

13

Alpha Amylase

Breaks down large starches

14

Lactose Intolerance

Lactase deficiency causing diarrhea, bloating, and dehydration

15

Cholecystokinin

Stimulates release of bile from gall bladder and lipases from pancrease that emulsify/digest lipids for uptake and processing into chylomicrons

16

Lipid Digestion

Hydrolyze acyl groups from FA sources like cholesterol, etc, to get FAs, transfer into cell, reassemble in cell, and send to chylomicrons to bypass liver via lymph

17

Glycolysis Yield

1 Glucose yields 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, and 2 ATP

18

Gluconeogenesis

(Mostly) reverse of glycolysis to produce glucose bc brain desperately needs it during starvation

19

Ketogenesis

True last resort to provide energy to brain by catabolizing everything to make acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutane, ketones that decrease pH in blood and can be used as food by brain

20

2 Nutrient Deliveries to Muscle

AAs and glucose

21

2 Nutrient Deliveries to Adipocytes

Chylomicrons from SI and VLDL from liver

22

Difference is Two Kinds of Body Fat

Subcutaneous not that bad, visceral fat inside cavities way worse

23

Type I Diabetes Insulin Therapy Progression (3)

Standard insulin therapy when young to avoid hypoglycemic brain damage, then intensive insulin therapy through most of life to avoid damage from high blood glucose, then back to standard insulin for old age to avoid stroke/heart attacks

24

Ketone Bodies and Diabetes

Type I has huge reliance on them, Type II may not

25

3 Type II Diabetes Medication Activities

Reactivate Beta cell activity
Inhibit gluconeogenesis
Increase glucose absorption

26

2 Insulin-Insensitive Organs

Brain and liver

27

Neuroglycopenia Blood Glucose Level

From hypoglycemia, usually start around 50 mg/dL

28

2 Most Common Causes of Hypoglycemia

Insulin-induced and Fasting-alcohol induced