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Flashcards in Outcome 2, SAC 1 Deck (79):

trends in death rates and why

decline in death rates due to the control of infectious disease, better hygiene and improved nutrition.
improved sanitation, control of bacteria and, viruses and parasites and a better understanding of dehydration


trends in life expectancy

LE has increased and therefore led to an ageing population. improvements in the prevention, detection and treatment of non-commicable disease


trends in circulatory diseases

death rates have been declining due to reduction in smoking rates


trends in injury and poisoning

have decreased due to the implementation of laws on roads and improvements in road safety measures
successful public health policies such as drink driving restrictions, the compulsory of wearing seat belts, reduced speed limits, better roads and car design and safety features eg air bags


trends in infectious disease

have declined due to higher rates of vaccination


trends in diabetes

increased due to overall higher intake of glucose (sugar) in the diet.


trends in infant mortality

have decreased due to improved access to neonatal care, improvements in the quality of neonatal healthcare, increased community awareness, improved sanitation and hygiene, and reductions in vaccine-preventable diseases due to immunisation programs


define public health

the organised response by society to protect and promote health, and to prevent illness, injury or disability.


examples of action to improve public health in Australia include the government acting to :

-improve and protect the quality of water that we drink
-improve sanitation, sewerage systems, and waste management
-improve level of immunisation in the public


how does the AIHW define public health

activities aimed at benefitting a population, with an emphasis on prevention, protection and health promotion as distinct from treatment tailored to individuals with symptoms.


define old public health

health workers addressing environmental issues and public hygiene that were contributing to ill-health. the approach taken by the public health workers was to improve access to toilets, improve sanitation and improve access to clean water and generally improve living conditions. The old public health was focused on specific medical interventions to treat illness and on narrowly defined public health initiatives with the aim of preventing a specific illness.


define the biomedical approach to health

Focuses on the physical or biological aspects of disease and illness. It is a medical model of care practised by doctors and health professionals, and is associated with the diagnosis, cure and treatment of disease. It has a quick fix approach as it focusses on individuals with illness and attempts to return them to their pre-illness state by addressing the physical aspects of the illness.


examples of medical technology

diagnostic tools and equipment
medical procedures


examples of diagnostic tools and equipment

MRI scanning
CT scanning
genetic screening for disease


examples of Pharmaceutical disease

ACE inhibitors
selective serotonin re uptake inhibitors (SSIR)
advances in vaccines


examples of medical procedures

organ transplant
hip and knee replacements
robotic surgery


why was the new public health model innovative

-it put the pursuit of equity at the centre of public health endeavours
• it was based on the assumption (supported by considerable evidence) that social and environmental factors were responsible for much ill-health
• it argued for health-promoting health services that were based on a strong system of primary health care
• it stressed the importance of participation and involvement in all new public health endeavours.


define the social model of health

A conceptual framework within which improvements in health and wellbeing are achieved by directing effort towards addressing the social, economic and environmental determinants of health. The model is based on the understanding that in order for health gains to occur, social, economic and environmental determinants must be addressed.


what are the guiding principles for the social model of health

Address the broader determinants of health
acts to Reduce social inequities
Empowers individuals and communities
Acts to enable access to healthcare
involves inter-Sectorial collaboration


old public health overview

-focus on improving infrastructure, especially to provide adequate shelter, clean water and sanitation.
-medical profession has a central place
-focus on the prevention and treatment of disease
-health is seen as absence of illness
-primary concern is with the prevention of infectious and contagious diseases that pose a threat to health
-concern with improving conditions of poor and special-needs groups


new public health overview

-focus on physical infrastructure, but also on social support, behaviour and lifestyles
-recognition of inter-sectoral action as vital and understanding that medicine is only one of many professions contributing
-focus on disease prevention and health promotion
-focus on a positive definition of health
-concerned with all threats to health, but also growing concern with sustainability and viability of physical environment
-equity is an explicit aim of the new public health


how does the Ottawa charter for health define health promotion

the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health


what are the prerequisites for health

peace, shelter, food, sustainable resources, income, stable ecosystems, education, social justice and equity


what are the three basic stratergies for health promotion




to support people with the information, opportunities, resources and skills that they need to make choices that support good health.



health promotion requires coordinated action by all levels of government, the health sector, non- government organisations, industry and the media.



It is about promoting and supporting initiatives that promote health on behalf of the whole community, and protecting health as a resource and important determinant in relation to the quality of life.


what are the five elements or priority actions that are deemed important in achieving health for all

build healthy public policy
create supportive environments
strengthen community action
develop personal skills
reorient health services


explain build healthy public policy

Building healthy public policy includes changes in policy that will help to make healthier choices easier and contribute to healthier, safer, cleaner and more enjoyable services and environments. eg no hat, no play


explain create support environments

involves building links between individuals and their environments (economic, physical and social) through taking care of one another, communities and natural resources. eg installing cycling paths


explain strengthen community action

strengthening community action requires communities working together to set priorities, make decisions, and plan and implement strategies that will help them to achieve better health. eg road safety


explain develop personal skills

The development of personal skills involves an individual gaining life skills and information through health promotion and education, and is the desired outcome of many health-promotion programs. eg teaching people how to select and prepare healthy foods


explain reorient health services

As with the other action areas, reorienting health services involves individuals, community groups, health professionals and the government working together to achieve a healthcare system that promotes health. support healthcare professionals in moving beyond providing biomedical services to treat and cure illness, and placing a stronger eg doctors prescribing exercise before a person has a heart attack


what are some strengths of the biomedical approach to health

-it provides treatment for many medical conditions
-can reduce the amount of time people spend experiencing poor-health.
-improves quality of life
-creates advances in technology as it is responsible for the development of x-rays and antibiotics etc
-increases LE by preventing many cases of premature death.


limitations of the biomedical approach to health

-expensive as it relies on professional health workers
-doesn't always promote equity
-doesn't always promote good health as the focus is treating the conditions once symptoms are present.
-treats the body and illness in isolation to the environment
-there isn't a cure or treatment for every illness or disease


strengths of the social model of health

-aims to improve the situation before illness occurs
-focuses on populations rather than individuals
-focuses on collaboration to improve effectiveness
-focuses on promoting good health
- it is sustainable
-it is more cost-effective than the biomedical approach
-individuals and communities are empowered to promote their own health
-promotes equity
-promotes good health and wellbeing


limitations of social model of health

-may be less effective for some people
-not all illnesses or conditions can be prevented
-relies on individuals making good choices
-doesnt address needs of individuals.


define medicare

Australia’s universal healthcare system, which aims to improve the access to healthcare for allAustralians and to provide access to adequate healthcare at little or no cost to all Australians in need of treatment, regardless of age or income.


define health system

All the activities whose primary purpose is to promote, restore and/or maintain health


define primary health care

refers to an individuals first contact with the healthcare system


define secondary care

includes health and services and medical care provided by specialists after a referral from a primary healthcare professional


who introduced medicare

the federal government


what was medicares aim

to improve the access to healthcare for all Australians and provide access to adequate healthcare at little to no cost for all Australians in need of treatment, regardless of age or income.


what are the three objectives of the medicare system

-to make healthcare more affordable for all Australians
-to give all Australians access to healthcare services with priority according to clinical need
-to provide a high quality of care


how is medicare funded

Medicare is funded by the Commonwealth Government partly through contributions made to the healthcare system through a 2 per cent Medicare levy, which is paid by most taxpayers who earn over a certain amount and based on taxable income.


define the medicare safety net

The Medicare safety net is a pro- tective measure designed to avoid patients having to pay high medical costs. It covers a range of out-of- hospital costs including doctor and specialists’ consultations, ultrasounds, blood tests and x-rays.


define gap amount

the difference between the medicare benefit and the schedule fee


define out-of-pocket costs

The difference between the Medicare benefit and what the doctor charges.


what is covered by medicare

free or subsidised treatment by health professionals such as doctors’ consultation fees as often as needed (including some specialists)
• tests and examinations that are needed to treat illness, including x-rays and pathology tests
• optometrists’ eye tests
• most procedures performed by GPs.


what are some services that are not covered by medicare

-general/most dental examinations and treatments
-ambulance services
-home nursing
-hearing aids


who is medicare funded by

Medicare is funded by the federal government, which raises revenue from taxpayers. General income taxes are paid to the government and may be used to pay for a range of government services such as healthcare. Medicare is also funded partly through contributions made to the healthcare system through a 2 per cent Medicare levy.


what is the role of medicare in promoting health relating to sustainability

Medicare is expensive to fund; however, it is hoped that by reducing or removing the cost of healthcare for individuals, they will access healthcare sooner, which will lead to improved health outcomes and reduce the cost of treatment in the long term.


what is the role of medicare in promoting health relating to access

Access refers to an individual being able to make use of particular services without barriers such as location, knowledge, time or cost. Medicare is accessible, as rebates are provided for a range of healthcare services including GP visits, eye tests performed by an optometrist and some diagnostic tests such as x-rays.


what is the role of medicare in promoting health relating to equity

Equity is closely linked to fairness and social justice. It is about ensuring that we all are on an even playing field by providing extra support for people in need so that they can have the same opportunities in life as everyone else.


define pharmaceutical benefits scheme

an Australian government program that provides subsidised prescription medicine to Australian residents, as well as foreign visitors covered by a reciprocal health care agreement.


what is the aim of the PBS

the aim of the PBS is to subsidise the cost of a wide range of prescription medications, providing Australians with vital medications at affordable pricesto ensure that optimal health outcomes and economic objectives are achieved.


what are some advantages of PBS for patients

-provides access to essential medication at a subsidised rate or sometimes at no cost
-it enables access to medications from local pharmacies and doesn't require medications to be purchased from specialised services
-it is available to all Australian citizens, regardless of their age or income
-provides additional support to those with concession cards by having lower co-payments


what are some disadvantages of PBS for patients

-it places a significant financial burden on the Commonwealth Government
-it doesn't generally cover all medications
-for most Australians there is still a co-payment of $38.80


how is PBS funded

The PBS is funded by the Commonwealth Government through taxes. When a doctor prescribes a PBS-approved medication, patients pay the subsidised amount and the government pays for the remaining cost of the drug.


what is the role of Pharmaceutical benefits scheme in promoting health in relation to sustainability

The PBS aims to be economically sustainable by subsidising the cost of a wide range of essential medications to treat chronic conditions in order to make them more affordable to all Australians so they can meet their health needs


what is the role of PBS in promoting health in relation to access

The PBS provides timely access to medication at local pharmacies at a reduced cost, which can promote access as individuals are able to get the medication they need without having to travel.


what is the role of PBS in promoting health in relation to equity

The government also added the Closing the Gap PBS Co-payment Program in 2010, as one of 14 measures in the Indigenous Chronic Disease Package. This was aimed at reducing the cost of PBS medicines for eligible Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living with, or at risk of, chronic disease.


define private health insurance

Private health insurance is a subscription or policy for which a person pays to provide them with different levels of cover.


what are some reasons that people may choose to pay extra for PHI

-to give them the choice of being treated in a private hospital
-to enable them to choose the hospital in which they want to be treated
-enable them to choose the doctor they want to be treated with
-to possibly entitle them to their own room in hospital
-to reduce waiting period for some non-emergency procedures in private hospitals


what are the advantages to private health insurance

-it enables individuals to have access to private hospital care
-it helps the government to address the increasing costs of Medicare
-may result in shorter waiting times for some procedures and can allow patients to select their own doctor in a public or private hospital


disadvantages for private health insurance

-costly for individuals and families to pay for private health cover
-there can be out-of-pocket costs for some services in some policies
-there may be a qualifying or waiting period for some procedures


explain inter sectorial collaboration

embraces the need for integrated action between government departments and ensures that the greatest gains in health will be made if many sectors (health sector, educations sectors, gov and non-gov orgs and private sector) work together.


explain addresses the broader determinants of health

addresses all the determinants of health, including biological factors, sociocultural factors and environmental factors rather than focusing on actions or behaviours of individuals. eg factors such as education and income play a significant role in health outcomes and must be addressed to produce optimal h&wb


explain empowers individuals and communities

individuals and communities are more likely to embrace health programs if they play a part in the planning and delivery of initiatives. they should also be given the skills and resources that are required to improve their h&wb


explain acts to increase access to health care

an increase access to healthcare will promote health and wellbeing as services will be readily available making it easier for the individual to access health services. healthcare services should also address the barriers to access such as location, culture language and transport.


explain acts to reduce social in equities

reduces the inequities that exist in relation to the health status and provision of health services that can be attributed to a range of factors including gender age ses race location and physical environment.


why do we need private health insurance

provides individuals with additional health care services to those provided by Medicare such as physiotherapy
-supports the burden on the public health system
-choose doctors


insurance rebate

this scheme allows most Australians with private health insurance to receive a rebate from the government to help cover the cost of their premiums


medicare levy surcharge

medicare levy surcharge is set at 2 % of taxable income tp help cover the cost of medicare services


what is the NDIS

provides support for Australians with disability


sustainability define

-needs of the community in being met
-taking care of the current generation without compromising the needs of the future generation
-strong infrastructure
-strong workforce
-based on health care
-high quality
-sustainable now and continues into the future


access define

-timely access to quality healthcare services based on their needs, not ability to pay regardless of where they live
-access to services without any barriers
-no discrimination or blockages that prevent people to access healthcare
-healthcare services such as interventions,support


equity define

-fairness and justice for everyone and e ermine having the support they need
-despite socioeconomic status
-protect the vulnerable groups in the community



helps people with disabilities to live a normal life
funded through all Govs
funds needs for people with disabilities