Flashcards in Outcome 1, SAC 1 Deck (69):
What are the dimensions of health and wellbeing?
Define Health (WHO 1946)
'A state of complete physical, social and mental wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.'
A complex combination of all dimensions of heath, characterised by am equilibrium in which the individual; feels happy, healthy, capable and engaged.
The state of feeling unwell, although the term is also often used synonymously with disease.
Define Health Status
'An individual's or a population's overall health, thing into account various aspects such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors.'
Define Physical Health and Wellbeing
Relates to the functioning of the body and its systems, it includes the physical capacity to perform daily activities or tasks.
Define Mental Dimension
Mental health is the current state of wellbeing relating to the mind or brain and it relates to the ability to think and process information.
Define Social Dimension
The ability to form meaningful and satisfying relationships with others and the ability to manage or adapt appropriately to different social situations.
Define Emotional Dimension
Emotional health relates to the ability to express feelings in a positive way. It is about the positive management and expression of emotional actions and reactions as well as the ability to display resilience.
Define Spiritual Dimension
Not material in nature, but relates to ideas, beliefs, values and ethics that arise in the minds and conscience of human beings.
Examples of Physical Health and Wellbeing
Having reliable body function
Being a healthy body weight for height (BMI)
Having a healthy blood pressure
Having an adequate level of energy
Being physically fit
Immune system is able to resist disease and infection
Limiting progression of chronic diseases
Being free from illness
Having flexibility of muscles and joints
Being able to perform physical tasks effectively
Examples of Mental Health and Wellbeing
Using coping mechanisms for stress
Having confidence and self belief
Supporting and helping the community
Being accepting of oneself
Feeling good about oneself
Using positive decision-making capabilities
Positively forming opinions
Examples of Social Health and Wellbeing
Having meaningful relationships
Being an active family member
Being respectful of others in a range of situations or social group
Working effectively as part of a team
Accepting responsibility for one's actions
Communicating effectively with others
Maintaining a network of friends
Obeying the laws and rules of society
Managing conflict effectively
Examples of Emotional Health and Wellbeing
Possessing feelings of accomplishment
Being aware of personal feelings
Feelings of security
Expressing feelings openly
Feeling in control of feelings
Examples of Spiritual Health and Wellbeing
Identifying with a belief or faith system
Having a guiding sense of purpose, meaning or value
Seeking the meaning of life
Endeavouring to be involved in a community in a way that is appropriate to your belief system
Seeking peace and harmony
Having a sense of happiness and fulfilment
Having a sense of belonging
Define Optimal Health and Wellbeing
The best possible state of an individual's health and wellbeing for their age. Maintaining an optimal level of wellbeing and health requires a balance and interaction between all of the dimensions of health.
What are the Indicators of Health Status?
Burden of Disease
Self-assessed Health Status
Mortality (Maternal, Infant, Under 5)
Define Self-Assessed Health Status
An overall measure of a population's health based on a person's own perception of their health.
Define Life Expectancy
'An indication of how long a person can expect to live; it is the number if years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change.' (AIHW, 2008)
Define Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)
A measure of burden of disease, based on life expectancy at birth, but including an adjustment for time spent in poor health. It is the number of years in full health that a person can expect to live based on current rates of ill-health and mortality.
The number of deaths caused by a particular disease, illness or other environmental factor.
Define Infant Mortality Rate
The number of deaths among children aged under 1 year in a given period, per 1000 live births in the same period.
Define Under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR)
'The number of deaths of children under five years of age per 1000 live births.' (WHO, 2008)
Define Maternal Mortality
Refers to the number of deaths of women due to pregnancy or child-birth related complications.
'Refers to ill-health in an individual and the levels of ill-health in a population or group.' (AIHW, 2008; VCAA)
Define Burden of Disease
A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries. Specifically, it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability. Burden of disease is measured in a unit called the DALY.
Define Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY)
A measure of burden of disease - one DALY equals one year of healthy life lost due to premature death and time lived with illness, disease or injury.
Years of Life Lost (YLL)
The fatal burden of disease of a population, defined as the years of life lost due to death.
Years of Life Lost due to Disability (YLD)
The non-fatal component of the disease burden; a measurement of the healthy years lost due to disease of injuries.
Formula for calculating DALY's
YLL + YLD = DALY's
The number or rate of new cases of a particular condition during a specific time.
'The number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time.' (AIHW, 2008)
Why is Health and Wellbeing Dynamic?
Because an individuals sate of health is an ever-changing entity that is affected by dynamic interactions with the environment.
Why is Health and Wellbeing a Resource for Individuals?
Optimal health and wellbeing increases the ability of individuals to live free from pain. They can then concentrate on activities that improve their lives such as studying, working and socialising. By being able to work, they can earn an income and afford health-promoting resources such as food and health care.
How does Health and Wellbeing contribute to an increasing national income?
Optimal health and wellbeing means that fewer people will be taking time off work. This increases the income of individuals and companies who then pay tax to the government. This increases the amount of money that the government can invest in resources such as education and infrastructure.
Outline the Benefits of having Health and Wellbeing as a Global Resource
Optimal health and wellbeing promotes peace and security as people are having their needs met. This increases the ability for countries to trade which improves economies allowing more money to be invested in health-promoting resources such as education.
What are the WHO prerequisites for Health and Wellbeing?
A Stable Ecosystem
Peace is much more then the absence of war or conflict. It also means access to education, health and essential services, sustainable development and protecting the planet's biodiversity.
Adequate Shelter means more than just a roof over ones head. It also means adequate privacy; adequate space; structural stability and durability; adequate lighting, heating and ventilation; and adequate basic infrastructure, such as water supply, sanitation and waste management facilities
Education is linked strongly to health and wellbeing, as well as to the factors of health, such as health behaviours, use of health-related information and preventative healthcare services, and an investment in human relationships and personal, family and community wellbeing; it also has a strong association with employment opportunities, level of literacy and level of income.
Nutritious food provides the individual with the ability to withstand the effects of exposure to illness and injury.
What is the 'Social Gradient of Health'?
The higher a person's income, education or occupation level, the healthier they tend to be.
Define Stable Ecosystem
Provides many resources for health, including food, air and water.
Define Sustainable Resources
Relates to enabling natural systems to function, remain diverse and produce what is required for the ecology to remain in balance, while still being used to maintain current living practices and to have these resources available for future generations.
Define Social Justice and Equity
All people within a community are required to receive fair treatment at all times. Everyone should have access to and equitable provision of services, including education, health and social services, across their lifespan.
What does WHO stand for?
World Health Organisation
What are some Limitations for the WHO Definition of Health?
Very broad definition
A personal opinion
Explain the dynamic nature of health and wellbeing
Health and Wellbeing is dynamic as it relates to the ever-changing state of a person's physical, social, emotional, mental and spiritual existence and is characterised by an equilibrium in which the individual feels happy, healthy, capable and engaged. The changes can occur very quickly, such as someone breaking their leg due to a car crash.
Explain the subjective nature of health and wellbeing
The concept of health and wellbeing means different things to different people and is therefore said to be subjective. An example of physical health and wellbeing being seen as subjective is an old man and a young child falling over. The old man will take longer to recover due to weak bones and muscles, while the child may get up and recover instantly.
Explain the dynamic nature of illness
Illnesses are said to be dynamic as they are constantly changing. This is because an individual can be perfectly fine, then go to a doctor and be told they have cancer.
Explain the Subjective nature of illness
Illnesses are said to be subjective as they mean different things and is experienced differently by different people. Individuals have different pain thresholds, past experiences and support networks. These factors can affect the level of illness as the pain may be more tolerable to someone, they may have a stronger immune system and those with support networks may experience a lower level of illness than those without support.
Define Health and Wellbeing
Relates to the state of a person's physical, social, emotional, mental and spiritual existence and is characterised by an equilibrium in which the individual feels happy, healthy, capable and engaged.
Explain the difference between illness and disease
A disease is a physical or mental disturbance involving symptoms, dysfunction or tissue damage, while illness is a more subjective concept related to personal experience of a disease.
If the question says health status answer with...
If the question says health and wellbeing answer with...
how can peace promote h&wb
access to education
access to health and essential services
how can shelter promote h&wb
access to food and watwr
access to heating
access to clean clothing
how can food promote h&wb
withstand effects of illness
allows body to grow affectively
how can education promote h&wb
live longer, make better choices
accès to foods
access to medication
how can income promote h&wb
access to medication, increasing life expectancy
access to good quality foods
more likely to make good choices
how can stable ecosystem promote h&wb
provides food air and water
how can sustainable resources promote h&wb
access to basic services
resources and energy effienctcy
green and decent jobs
better quality of life for alll
how can social justice promote h&wb
access to and equitable provision of services
health and social services
how can equity promote h&wb
access to healthy safe accessible and sustainable places
a resource for everyday life, not the object of living. health is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities.
what are factors that influence the way people view their health (subjective)