Outcome 1, SAC 2 Flashcards Preview

HHD Unit 3 > Outcome 1, SAC 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Outcome 1, SAC 2 Deck (68):

What are the leading causes of mortality in Australia?

Coronary heart disease
Dementia and Alzheimers
Cerebrovascular disease
Lung cancer
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


What are the most common long-term conditions among older Australians?

Hearing loss
Musculoskeletal problems
Elevated blood pressure
Cholesterol levels


Define disability

A continuum from having no impairment or limitation to the complete loss of functioning or ability to complete a task.


Define biological factors

Factors relating to the body that impact on health and wellbeing.


What are the biological factors?

Body weight
Blood cholesterol
Blood pressure
Blood glucose regulation


Define genetics

Genetics plays a role in determining lifespan, healthiness and the likelihood of developing specific illnesses. Conditions can be related to genetic inheritance of DNA variants, referred to as mutations, which result in a change in one of the genes affecting the way the body works or develops.


Define body weight

Body weight is influenced by genetics as well as body function in relation to metabolism and hormonal control.
Body weight can also be determined by an individuals body type.


Define overweight

When a persons weight is 10 to 20 per cent higher than 'normal', as defined by BMI of 25 to 30.


Define obese

A condition in which a persons weight is 20 per cent or more above 'normal' weight, or they have a BMI of 30 or more.


Define cholesterol

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance used by the body to build cell walls. its is either produced in the liver or absorbed from animal fats eaten. Cholesterol is a fat-based chemical so in order for it to travel around the body it needs to be carried in small packages called lipoproteins.


Low density lipoproteins (LDL)

High LDL levels produce a build-up of cholesterol in your arteries, referred to as plaque. An increase in plaque can narrow the arteries or affect the flow of blood to the heart. This causes a decrease in the amount of oxygen-carrying blood, resulting in coronary heart disease. (bad cholesterol)


High density lipoproteins (HDL)

Carries cholesterol from other parts of the body to the liver, which then removes it from the body. (good cholesterol)


Define high blood pressure

When blood is being pumped through the arteries at a harder and faster rate than is considered normal and healthy. This is also known as hypertension.


Define atherosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries
blood pumping harder
plaque build up and narrowing arteries


Define blood glucose regulation

Impaired glucose regulation is characterised by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion and is often referred to as pre-diabetes.


Define low birthweight

Birthweight is the first weight of the newborn measured immediately after birth. Birthweight less than 2500g is considered low. The two main reasons a baby is born at low birthweight is premature birth and foetal growth restriction.


What are some health problems that may be faces by low birthweight babies?

Respiratory distress syndrome
Bleeding in the brain
Heart problems
Eye conditions


What are some health problems that may be faces by low birthweight babies later in life?

High blood pressure
Type 2 diabetes
Heart disease


Define age

Can result in the deterioration of body systems due to various forms of cellular damage that occurs overtime. This damage can cause a reduction in both physical and mental function and makes the individual more susceptible to illness, long-term conditions and diseases.


Define sociocultural factor

Aspects of society and the social environment that impact on health and wellbeing.


What are the sociocultural factors?

Social networks-family
Social networks-peers and the community
Socioeconomic status (SES)
Level of education
Employment status
Overcrowding and homelessness
Access to health information


Define social networks-family

The earliest years of an individuals life have a crucial impact on their path of health and wellbeing. Factors such as income, education, community resources and other social and economic factors can affect health at every stage of life, but the effects on young children are particularly dramatic.


Define social networks-peers and the community

Social support is the perception and actuality that individuals are cared for, have assistance available from other people when needed and are part of a supportive social network. The support given can be emotional, tangible, informational or companionship.


Define socioeconomic status

An individuals SES is often associated with their income, as SES is determined by the key elements of income, education level, employment status and occupational type.


Define level of education

Higher levels of education are sometimes associated with higher income and better employment prospects. They also allow the individual to participate in and connect with the wider community. A higher level of education decreases illnesses and have better mental health than those with lower levels of education.


Define employment status

The place of employment can not only provide a setting where healthy activities and behaviours are promoted, but it can also provide a sense of identity, social status and purpose in life, as well as social support. employment also provides a source of income, which gives people the opportunity to pursue health-promoting behaviours and the ability to live in circumstances that promote health.


differences in population groups for smoking

more common in low SES groups than high SES groups
more common in males then females
more common in rural and remote areas compared to major cities
more common among aboriginal and Torres Strait islanders compared to other Australians


how does smoking contribute to health status

higher rates of CVD
higher rates of cancer
smoking in pregnancy can cause miscarriage, low birthweight and stillbirth and can increase risks of SIDS
can cause poor circulation and therefore increase risk of amputations
type 2 diabetes


differences in population groups for alcohol

low SES groups are less likely to exceed alcohol consumption guidelines than those from high SES groups
those in remote or very remote areas are are more likely to consume alcohol at risky levels once a week than those in major cities


how does alcohol contribute to health status

increase risk of death from road accidents
increase Risk of falls, injuries, drowning
overweight and obesity
liver disease
mental illness
some cancers
foetal alcohol spectrum disorder


differences in population groups for high BMI

more common among those living in rural and remote areas compared to those living in major cities
more common among males compared with females
more common among those from low SES groups compared to those from high SES groups
more common among aboriginal and Torres strait islander people compared with other Australia


how does high BMI contribute to health status

increase risk of type 2 diabetes
reduce life expectancy
increase CVD
increase burden of disease from respiratory and musculoskeletal conditions


underconsumption of fruit and veggies

colorectal cancer


underconsumption of dairy foods



high intake of fat

type 2 diabetes
colorectal cancer


high intake of salt



high intake of sugar

diabetes mellitus


low intake of fibre

colorectal cancer
overweight and obesity
type 2 diabetes


low intake of iron

increase risk of iron deficiency anaemia


health status differences between males and females

males hava a LE of around 4 years less than females
males have higher rates of injuries than females
males have higher rates of morbidity from CVD
males have higher rates of diabetes


biological factors - males/females

males have higher rates of overweight
higher levels of hormone testosterone, which poses health risks
females have a genetic predisposition to breast cancer


sociocultural factors - males/females

males more likely to be unemployed
females more likely to access health information and support services


environmental factors - males/females

work outdoors, increasing sun exposure
exposed to be unsafe work experience


health status differences between indigenous/non

lower LE of around 10 years
poorer self assessed health status
higher morbidity rates from CVD
higher mortality rates and BOD from diabetes


biological factors - indigenous/non

indigenous and Torres Strait islanders are more likely to be:
overweight and obesity
insulin resistance and impaired glucose regulation
high blood pressure


sociocultural factors - indigenous/non

higher rates of unemployment
lower incomes
high blood cholesterol levels


environmental factor - indigenous/non

more likely to be exposed to poor air quality e.g. exposure to tobacco smoke
lower quality of roads in remote areas
less access to infrastructure and physical resources such as health care


health status differences between high and low SES groups

Lower life expectancy
higher rates of diabetes
higher rates of coronary heart disease


biological factors - high/low SES groups

higher rates of obesity
higher rates of high blood pressure
higher rates of glucose intolerance


sociocultural factors - low/high SES groups

lower levels of education
higher levels of unemployment
housing issues such as o overcrowding


environmental factors - low/high SES groups

greater rates of exposure to tobacco smoke in the home
exposure to high risks in the work environment
poor access to infrastructure and physical resources


health status differences between those living within and outside major cities

lower life expectancy
high road injury and fatality rates
higher death rates from chronic disease such as coronary heart disease


biological factors - living within/outside major cities

higher rates of overweight and obesity
higher rates of high blood pressure
higher rates of high blood cholesterol levels


sociocultural factor - living within/outside major cities

higher rates of unemployment
difficulty accessing a range of health care facilities and services
lower incomes
lower levels of educational attainment


environmental factor - living within/outside major cities

harsh environment conditions e.g. sun exposure
reduced access and quality of recreational facilities
less access to fluoridated water


monounsaturated fats examples

plant based oils
leaner meats


monounsaturated fats

lower levels of LDL cholesterol without lowering the levels of high density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol.


polyunsaturated fats examples

vegetable oils


polyunsaturated fats omega 3

regulating blood pressure and blood clotting and helping tom maintain healthy immune system. also assist in brain and spinal cord function.


polyunsaturated fats omega 6

essential for growth, cell structure, maintaining healthy immune system
lower risk of CVD


over crowding and homelessness

housing is considered to be a basic human right and an important influence on wellbeing. overcrowding puts increased stress on health infrastructure, such as water supply and sewerage systems. generally, overcrowding mainly impacts the health of children and can cause respiratory conditions, skin infections and meningitis.
e.g. slipping on wet/dirty surfaces
trauma from glass
fire risk from inflammable materials
sewerage systems blocked


access to health information

access to health and healthcare information is important to ensure there is equity in being able to achieve optimal health across all population groups. some factors that hinder individuals access to healthcare services is geographical location, cultural beliefs, costs of information or services not covered by Medicare, literacy level and lack of availability.


define environmental factors

the surroundings in which we live, work and play. The environment includes water and air, workplaces, roads, nature, schools, recreation settings and exposure to hazards.


what are the environmental factors

air water and sanitation quality
access to physical resources such as transport, recreation facilities and healthcare
climate change and natural disasters


air water and sanitation quality

poor water and sanitation can lead to communicable diseases
the aw&s quality is poorer in rural and remote areas
inner cities have poorer air quality as more people smoke
sanitation good in industrial but not in remote areas
smoking in the home increases asthma, bronchitis and ear infections, babies at higher risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
workplace safety e.g. asbestos, causing cancer


access to physical resources such as transport, recreation facilities, healthcare

transport & infrastructure
enables people to access a range of services, recreational facilities, and health care improving h&wb of a population
obesity is higher in rural areas where walking or cycling is impractical and private car use is the only option
recreational facilities
lack of parks, walking tracks and sporting grounds etc increases risk of chronic diseases e.g. respiratory conditions
geographic location of resources such as healthcare
where a person lives can determine their level of access to essential services. Living in remote areas of Australia, requires individuals to travel to larger regional cities to access health care. This can result in the delay of the detection and diagnosis of some conditions such as cancers.



the type of work and the tasks involved influence a workers risk of physical injury and illness. physically demanding job may put individuals at a higher risk for long term absence due to physical strain and injury. this puts pressure and stress not only on the employee as they aren't getting an income, but also the employer as they have lost a work member. sedentary jobs can contribute to the risk of obesity and chronic diseases such as heart disease due to the absence of physical activity
Shiftwork disturbs sleep


climate change and natural disasters

as climate gets hotter, it will impact food production resulting in a change in fresh food consumption due to higher costs, which may increase diet related disease e.g. type 2 diabetes, CVD, obesity
mosquito breeding changing resulting in more mosquito-borne diseases e.g. Ross River virus
changes to exposure to ultra violet (UV) radiation due to changing temps can increase prevalence of skin cancer (melanoma of the skin)
natural disasters impact health outcome:
-physical injuries and fatalities
-increase in water-borne illnesses leading to gastro-intestinal diseases, diarrhoea and vomiting.