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Flashcards in Overview of Pulmonary System Deck (60):
1

Respiratory Process

1. Pulmonary Ventilation (air in and out of lungs only)
2. Pulmonary Diffusion
3. Gas Transport
4. Capillary Gas Exchange
5. Cellular/Internal Respiration

2

Respiratory Zones - Conducting Zone

Warms and humidifies air
Nasal Cavity --> Pharynx --> Larynx --> Trachea --> Bronchi --> Bronchioles --> Terminal Bronchioles

3

Respiratory Zones - Respiratory Zone

Gas Exchange
Respiratory Bronchioles --> Alveolar Ducts --> Alveolar Sac --> Alveoli

4

Upper Respiratory Tract

Nasal Cavity --> Pharynx --> Larynx

5

Lower Respiratory Tract

Trachea --> Bronchi --> Bronchioles --> Alveoli

6

Resp. Epithelium Gel Layer

High viscosity from goblet cells (goblet cells produce mucous)

7

Res. Epithelium Sol Layer

Low viscocity, watery secretion from mucous glands
Mucinex - facilitates movement of this mucous

8

C-Fibers

Afferent
Cough Reflex

9

Sympathetic NS

Inhibits

10

Parasympathetic NA

Stimulates

11

Upper Resp. Tract - Swell Bodies

Venous plexus of cavernous thin walled vessels
Found in middle and inferior conchae
Veins that drain the plexus can constrict to cause engorgement
Engorgement occurs in a cyclical fashion to prevent respiratory epithelium from drying out

12

Upper Resp. Tract - Paranasal Sinuses

Located in ethmoid, frontal, and sphenoid bones
Humidifies air

13

Trachea

Hyaline cartilage rings that give structure but allow for flexibility

14

Trachea Musculature

Trachealis
Posterior surface
When C fibers detect an irritant, will contract and narrow and this promotes the cough reflex
Force through smaller area = inc velocity

15

Hilux

Where everything goes in and out
Veins = oxygenated

16

Bronchioles Innervation

Smooth muscle innervated by ANS
Para = Cholinergic (Constrict airway)
Sym = Adrenergic (dilate airway)

17

Bronchioles

18

Bronchus
Epithelium
Goblet Cells
Cartilage
Glands
Smooth Muscle
Alveoili

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar
+
+
+
2 sets
-

19

Bronchiole
Epithelium
Goblet Cells
Cartilage
Glands
Smooth Muscle
Alveoili

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar
+
-
-
+
-

20

Terminal Bronchiole
Epithelium
Goblet Cells
Cartilage
Glands
Smooth Muscle
Alveoili

Simple Ciliated Columnar
-
-
-
+
-

21

Respiratory Bronchiole
Epithelium
Goblet Cells
Cartilage
Glands
Smooth Muscle
Alveoili

Simple Cuboidal
-
-
-
+
+

22

Alveolar Duct
Epithelium
Goblet Cells
Cartilage
Glands
Smooth Muscle
Alveoili

Simple Cuboidal
-
-
-
little
+

23

Alveolus
Epithelium
Goblet Cells
Cartilage
Glands
Smooth Muscle
Alveoili

Simple Squamous
-
-
-
-

24

Alveoli

About 300 million
1 mm in length

25

How many capillaries per alveolus

About 500 to 1000
Abundant capillaries forms a sheet around each alveolus

26

Alveolar Capillary Unit

Provides minimum diffusion distance and maximum surface area for gas exchange

27

Distance btw alveolus and capillary

0.5 to 1 micometer

28

Drawback to alveolar capillary unit

Alveoli is surrounded by water and water molecules are attracted to one another to the point that can develop cuz of surface tension
SO...alveoli release surfactant which reduces this surface tension

29

Surface Tension in created when

H20 molecules are attracted to one another

30

Surface Tension and Work of Breathing

Increases the work of breathing
Harder to get air into the lungs
- Normally 2/3 of work of breathing is used to overcome surface tension

31

Surface Tension and Internal Pressure

Increase internal pressure required to open alveoli
P = 2T/r
Smaller alveoli have higher internal pressure and are more prone to experience atelectasis

32

Surfactant

Phospholipid that decreases surface tension and decreases the work of breathing

33

Surfactant location/spread

Spread over alveolar surface more effectively by yawning/deep breathing

34

Infant Resp. Distress Syndrome

Surfactant appears at 34 weeks gestation
Poor surfactant production increases work of breathing

35

Conducting zone is ____ Dependent

Velocity
150mL of air

36

Respiratory zone is ____ Dependent

Diffusion
2.5 - 3L
Bigger area than conducting zone

37

Total Lung Capacity

6 L

38

Tidal Volume

Normal breathing, air into and out of lungs
500 mL

39

Vital Capacity

Exhaled volume after maximal inspiration

40

Residual Volume

Amount of air left in lung after max expiration
1 L

41

Functional Residual Capacity

Volume of gas in lung after normal exhale
The baseline of the lung

42

Measuring Residual Volume

Not with spirometry
measured by He dilution, )2 dilution, or N2 washout

43

Purpose of Residual Volume

Allows uninterupted exchange of gas between blood and alveoli btw phases of breathing cycle
Keeps alveoli inflated and prevents fluctuations in blood gas concentrations

44

Airflow

Largely determined by diameter
Change in pressure over resistance

45

Most resistance in...

Conducting Airway

46

Low resistance in...

Respiratory zones - more diffusion going on

47

Constriction of airway and resistance and airflow

Inc resistance
decrease airflow

48

Bronchiolar Smooth Muscle Innervation

ANS

49

Bronchiolar Innervation Symp.

Adrenergic stimulation causes dilation of bronchi and bronchioles
NE and Albuterol stimulate B2 receptors that then lead to dilation
Inhibits glandular secretions

50

Bronchiolar Innervation Para

Muscarinic receptors (Ach)
Cholinergic stimulation causes constriction
Increases glandular secretion (mucous)

51

Bronchiolar Smooth Muscle Irritants

Cause reflex contraction of bronchial smooth muscle
Irritant receptrs located in trachea and large bronchi

52

What is Air Pressure

Gravity pulls air molecules toward earth
Weight of air molecules is the air pressure
Depends on how much gas there is (atmospheric thickness)
The amount of gas depends on gravity

53

Gravity and Air Pressure

The stronger the gravity, the more gas is held by the world and the greater the weight of atm. on a point

54

one atm =

760 mmHg

55

At altitude pressure is

lower
Air is lighter

56

Barometer

Used for measuring air pressure
Lower pressure = more fluid in air
Cortisol - joints before storm

57

As atm pressure increases...

Mercury in tube rises

58

Air Movement

High to low pressure

59

Pressure Gradietn

Change in pressure across a distance
Need gradient for movement

60

Lung Tissure and air pressure

Lung tissue is highly elastic and distensible
Normal breath requires