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Flashcards in Pulmonary Function Testing Deck (36):
1

Obstructive Lung Disease

Inc in airway resistance
Airflow Problem
Diameter and turbulent flow affect resistance

2

Ex of obstructive

emphysema
chronic bronchitis
asthma

3

Restrictive Lung Disease

Dec in compliance
Volume Problem
Structural issues affect compliance

4

Ex of restricitve

pulmonary fibrosis
asbestosis
sillicosis
respiratory distress syndrome
lung injury

5

Inspection of Respiratory System

1. Cough
2. Sputum
3. Chest Pain
4. Resp Rate
5. Breathing Pattern
6. Use of acc. muscles
7. Tracheal tug
8. Nasal flaring
9. Chest wall deformity
10. Cyanosis
11. Skin pallor or redness
12. Clubbing
13. Nicotine Stains

6

Asthma

Hyperresponsive response to allergen

7

Asthma results in...

Inflammation
Bronchospasm
Mucus secretions
Edema

8

Primary mediator Asthma

Eosinophils
- Results in mast cell degranulation which causes bronchiolar smoothe muscle to contract (spasm)

9

What can asthma be worsened by?

inc in PNS due to anxiety of not being able to breathe

10

COPD - combination of

Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema

11

Chronic Bronchitis

Excess mucus production in lower resp. tract
Cough for 3 consecutive months
Dec in Ve/Q ratio
Hypoxia
Hypercapnia
Hypertension from edema

12

Emphysema

Loss of elasticity due to destruction of alveolar walls - enlarges air spaces
Air trapping
Tachypnea

13

Pulmonary Fibrosis

Pneumoconiosis - fibrosis due to inhalation of toxins
ARDS - direct injury of capillaries and alveolar tissue (sepsis or severe trauma)

14

Extrapulmonary Causes of restrictive lung

Head or spinal cord injury
Muscular dystrophy
Can accompany chest wall deformity

15

Pulmonary Function Testing - when to do it

Evaluating patient at risk for lung disease
Patient shows symptoms of distress
Monitoring those with known pulm diseases
Preoperative evaluation
Surveillance following lung transplantation

16

Pulmonary Function Testing - when you should NOT do it

MI w/in last month
Unstable angina
Recent thoraco-abdominal surgery
Recent ophthalmic surgery
Pneumothorax
Recently smoked cigarette

17

PFT - Forced Vital Capacity

Total volume of air that can be forcibly expired after maximal inspiration

18

PFT - FEV1

Forced expiraotry volume in 1st second
Volume forcibly expired in first second

19

PFT - FEV1/FVC Ratio

Fraction of total FVC expelled during first second
Reflects resistance to airflow
Influenced by age, gender, body size, race

20

PFT - FEF25-75

Expiratory flow over the middle 50% of the test
Very sensitive to early airflow obstruction

21

Obstructive Lung Disease - Ratio

FEV1/FVC ratio

22

Restrictive Lung Disease - Ratio

Normal to high FEV1/FVC ratio
Low FVC

23

If flow is impeded

Obstruction

24

If volume is reduced

Restriction

25

Radial Traction

Inc lung volume
Inc airway diameter
Dec airway resistance

26

Patients with High airway resistance

can take advantage of this by breathing at higher lung volumes

27

Breathing at higher lung volumes...

maximizes elastic recoil to aid expiration

28

Obstructive - Compliance

High Compliance
Low Elastance
Easy to expand (in), difficult to empty completely

29

Ressitive - COmpliance

Low COmpliance
High Elastance
Difficult to expand lung (in)

30

Work of Respiration

W = P * Change in Volume
Represents force * distance

31

Resistive - work

Inc work to overcome elastic recoil forces

32

Obstructive - work

Inc work to overcome airway resistance

33

Capnograph

Measures ETCO2

34

DLCO

Diffusing capacity of lung for CO

35

Restrictive - Table

Low values
High ratio

36

Obstructive - Table

High Values
Low Ratio