Flashcards in Oxygenation Deck (43):
How many lobes make up the right lung?
How many lobes make up the left lung?
What is the purpose of the epiglottis?
Covers the opening of the trachea during swallowing
What is the medical term for the "windpipe" or the entrance way for air into the lungs?
What are the terminal ends of the airways called?
What are the alveolis function?
Exchange of gases; Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide
What is the drive for a healthy adult to take a breath?
Hypercarbia; systolic below 60mmHg CO2 forces lungs to breath
Purpose of "clip on the finger"?
Called a Pulse Oximetry- Detects the oxygenated hemoglobin molecules in the blood perfusing past the sensors and gives in percentage (oxygenated vs. deoxyenated)
What is the normal 02 saturation range for a healthy adult?
"Normal" respiratory rate for an adult?
10-20 breaths per min
more than 20 breaths/min
less than 10 breaths/min
Difficult, painful, breathing or SOB called?
Absence of breath?
What is the FiO2 of atmospheric air?
Flow rates set 5 to 10 L/min
Simple Face Mask
Flow rate set at 2 to 6 L/min
Set with specific O2 flow rate and Jet adapter device
Approp. level of O2 are inhaled with no CO2 from exhaled gases
What emergency equipment should the nurse check for immediately upon assuming care of a patient with a tracheostomy?
-Working suction equipment
-New tracheostomy tube with obturator
How does a nurse prevent hypoxia during suctioning?
Avoid prolonged suction time.
decreased level of oxygen?
late sign & as seen as a blue tinge to the skin in fair individuals or grey in darker indiv.
Clubbed nail beds
CO2 levels increase
difficulty breathing on one's back
identifies microbes, metabolites of inflammation and immunoglobulins
direct indication of 02 & CO2 exchange and acid base balance with in the blood
Arterial Blood Gases ABG's
provides info. on ventilation and flow, lung vol. and capacity and diffusion of gas.
Pulmonary Function Tests PFT's
partial lung collapse
pattern of rapid breathing and slow shallow periods of apnea. dying , drug overdose, head injury
Very deep, & rapid breathing pattern with metabolic acidosis
Rapid & Deepened inhalation & exhalation
Shallow with periods of Apnea
Slow or Shallow air entering alveoli
Shape-the anteroposterior diameter is half of the transverse diameter.
Symmetry-The chest is symmetric with no deformities of the ribs, sternum, scapula or vertebrae, and equal movements during respiration.
InterCostalSpaces (ICS)-No excessive retractions.
Rate & Pattern: 10 to 20/min and regular
Character of breathing (diaphragmatic, abdominal, thoracic)
Use of accessory muscles
Chest wall expansion
Depth of respirations-unlabored, quiet breathing
Cough-if productive, note color, consistency of sputum.
Skin & mucous membrane color-consistent with genetic background.
Physical Assessments for Oxygenation
-Bronchial-Loud, high-pitched, expiration longer than inspiration over the trachea
-Bronchovesicular-medium pitch and intensity with equal inspiration and expiration times over the larger airways
-Vesicular-soft, low-pitched, inspiration 3x longer than expiration over most of the peripheral areas of the lungs
Expected Sounds from the lungs during Ausculation
Crackles or rales; Fine to coarse popping as air passes through fluid (grinding pepper/popping)
Wheezes; high-pitched whistling
Rhonchi; coarse sounds (snoring sound; could clear with coughing)
Pleural Friction Rub-grating sound as the inflamed visceral & parietal pleura rub against ea. other (sounds like walking through snow)
Absence of breath sounds from collapsed or surgically removed lobes.
Unexpected Sounds from the lungs during Ausculation
Breathing is quiet; effortless
Rate is appropriate for age
O2 Sat is 95% or higher
Skin, nailbeds, lips are approp. for race
Thorax is symmetric with equal bilateral expansion
Anteroposterior is 1/2 the transverse diameter
Trachea is midline
Breath sounds clear bilaterally
pale skin, and mucous membranes
elevated blood pressure
Use of accessory muscles
nasal flaring, trachea tugging,
adventitous breath sounds
Early Signs of Hypoxemia (Hypoxia)
Cyanotic skin, mucous membranes
Late Signs of Hypoxemia (Hypoxia)