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Nur 170 Exam 2 (12.5.14) > Oxygenation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oxygenation Deck (43):
1

How many lobes make up the right lung?

3

2

How many lobes make up the left lung?

2

3

What is the purpose of the epiglottis?

Covers the opening of the trachea during swallowing

4

What is the medical term for the "windpipe" or the entrance way for air into the lungs?

Trachea

5

What are the terminal ends of the airways called?

Alveoli

6

What are the alveolis function?

Exchange of gases; Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide

7

What is the drive for a healthy adult to take a breath?

Hypercarbia; systolic below 60mmHg CO2 forces lungs to breath

8

Purpose of "clip on the finger"?

Called a Pulse Oximetry- Detects the oxygenated hemoglobin molecules in the blood perfusing past the sensors and gives in percentage (oxygenated vs. deoxyenated)

9

What is the normal 02 saturation range for a healthy adult?

95-100%

10

"Normal" respiratory rate for an adult?

10-20 breaths per min

11

more than 20 breaths/min

Tachypnea

12

less than 10 breaths/min

Bradypnea

13

Difficult, painful, breathing or SOB called?

Dyspnea

14

Absence of breath?

Apnea

15

What is the FiO2 of atmospheric air?

21%

16

Flow rates set 5 to 10 L/min
Fi02 30-50%

Simple Face Mask

17

Nasal route
Flow rate set at 2 to 6 L/min
FiO2 24-44%

Nasal Cannula

18

Set with specific O2 flow rate and Jet adapter device

Venturi Mask

19

Approp. level of O2 are inhaled with no CO2 from exhaled gases

Non-rebreather Mask

20

What emergency equipment should the nurse check for immediately upon assuming care of a patient with a tracheostomy?

-Working suction equipment
-Oxygen sources
-New tracheostomy tube with obturator

21

How does a nurse prevent hypoxia during suctioning?

Avoid prolonged suction time.

22

decreased level of oxygen?

hypoxemia

23

late sign & as seen as a blue tinge to the skin in fair individuals or grey in darker indiv.

Cyanosis

24

Clubbed nail beds

Chronic hypoxemia

25

Respiratory acidosis

CO2 levels increase

26

difficulty breathing on one's back

Orthopnea

27

identifies microbes, metabolites of inflammation and immunoglobulins

Sputum specimen

28

direct indication of 02 & CO2 exchange and acid base balance with in the blood

Arterial Blood Gases ABG's

29

provides info. on ventilation and flow, lung vol. and capacity and diffusion of gas.

Pulmonary Function Tests PFT's

30

partial lung collapse

Pneumothorax

31

pattern of rapid breathing and slow shallow periods of apnea. dying , drug overdose, head injury

Cheyne-Stokes

32

Very deep, & rapid breathing pattern with metabolic acidosis

Kussmaul's

33

Rapid & Deepened inhalation & exhalation

Hyperventilation

34

Shallow with periods of Apnea

Biot's

35

Slow or Shallow air entering alveoli

Hypoventilation

36

Shape-the anteroposterior diameter is half of the transverse diameter.

Symmetry-The chest is symmetric with no deformities of the ribs, sternum, scapula or vertebrae, and equal movements during respiration.

InterCostalSpaces (ICS)-No excessive retractions.

Respiratory Effort-
Rate & Pattern: 10 to 20/min and regular
Character of breathing (diaphragmatic, abdominal, thoracic)
Use of accessory muscles
Chest wall expansion
Depth of respirations-unlabored, quiet breathing

Cough-if productive, note color, consistency of sputum.
Trachea midline
Skin & mucous membrane color-consistent with genetic background.

Inspection

37

Inspection 1st
Palpation advanced
Percussion advanced
Ausculation 2nd

Physical Assessments for Oxygenation

38

Expected Sounds;
-Bronchial-Loud, high-pitched, expiration longer than inspiration over the trachea
-Bronchovesicular-medium pitch and intensity with equal inspiration and expiration times over the larger airways
-Vesicular-soft, low-pitched, inspiration 3x longer than expiration over most of the peripheral areas of the lungs

Expected Sounds from the lungs during Ausculation

39

Unexpected Sounds;
Crackles or rales; Fine to coarse popping as air passes through fluid (grinding pepper/popping)
Wheezes; high-pitched whistling
Rhonchi; coarse sounds (snoring sound; could clear with coughing)
Pleural Friction Rub-grating sound as the inflamed visceral & parietal pleura rub against ea. other (sounds like walking through snow)
Absence of breath sounds from collapsed or surgically removed lobes.

Unexpected Sounds from the lungs during Ausculation

40

Breathing is quiet; effortless
Rate is appropriate for age
O2 Sat is 95% or higher
Skin, nailbeds, lips are approp. for race
Thorax is symmetric with equal bilateral expansion
Anteroposterior is 1/2 the transverse diameter
Trachea is midline
Breath sounds clear bilaterally

Normal oxygenation

41

tachypnea
tachycardia
restlessness, anxiety
pale skin, and mucous membranes
elevated blood pressure
Use of accessory muscles
nasal flaring, trachea tugging,
adventitous breath sounds

Early Signs of Hypoxemia (Hypoxia)
Abnormal Findings

42

Confusion, stupor
Cyanotic skin, mucous membranes
bradypnea, bradycardia
hypotension
cardiac dysrrhythmia

Late Signs of Hypoxemia (Hypoxia)

43

Noisy and labored
tachypnea over 20
bradypnea under 10
dyspnea
pulse ox under 95%
grey or blue cyanosis hue
barrel chested
chest shift to side
lungs not clear; adventitious sounds

Abnormal Lung Oxygenation