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Nur 170 Exam 2 (12.5.14) > Perfusion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Perfusion Deck (59):
1

The force that ventricles must overcome to eject their blood volume

Afterload

2

A comparison of the apical and radial pulses, which are normally identical. A pulse deficit can indicate certain cardiovascular disorders

Apical-radial pulse

3

An arterial disorder characterized by thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of arterial walls

Arteriosclerosis

4

A heart sound produced by atrial contraction and ejection of blood into the ventricle during late diastole. Also called fourth heart sound.

Atrial gallop S4

5

A heart rate in an adult of less than 60 bpm

bradycardia

6

The amount of blood pumped by the ventricles into the pulmonary and systemic circulations in 1 minute.

Cardiac Output CO

7

Propels blood to organs and their tissues. Generated by Cardiac Output

Central Perfusion

8

The phase of ventricular relaxation btwn heart beats.

Diastole

9

The minimum pressure within the arteries during diastole.

Diastolic Blood Pressure

10

The fraction or percentage of the diastole volume that is ejected from the heart during systole.

Ejection Fraction

11

An indicator of the health of an artery. A healthy, normal artery feels straight, smooth, soft and pliable. Older adults often have inelastic arteries that feel twisted (tortuous) and irregular upon palpation.

Elasticity of the Arterial Wall

12

A graphic record of the hearts activity. ECG

ECG Electrocardiogram

13

The heart sound produced by the closure of the AV valve.

First Heart Sound S1

14

A heart sound produced by atrial contraction and ejection of blood into the ventricle during late diastole. Also called atrial gallop.

Fourth Heart Sound S4

15

Harsh, blowing sounds caused by disruption of blood into the heart, between the chambers of the heart, or from the heart into the pulmonary or aortic systems.

Heart Murmur

16

A below normal blood pressure reading between 85 & 110 mmHg

Hypotension

17

Insuffient blood supply

Ischemia

18

The series of sounds identified while taking a blood pressure using a stethoscope.

Korotkoff Sounds

19

overweight/obesity, high blood pressure;hypertension, high glucose levels, abnormal lipid metabolism, physical inactivity, smoking

Modifiable risk factors

20

Aka postural hypotension is a form of low blood pressure that happens when you stand up from sitting or lying down. Feeling dizzy or light headed; maybe faint

Orthostatic hypotension

21

A double layer of firoserous membrane that encases and anchors the heart.

Pericardium

22

A pulse located away from the heart, in the foot or the wrist.

Peripheral Pulse

23

A pulse located at the apex of the heart. aka apical pulse

Point of Maximal Impulse (PMI)

24

the absence of a palpable pulse waves in a peripheral artery for one or more heart beats, often seen in atrial fibrillation.

Pulse Deficit

25

The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure.

Pulse Pressure

26

The pattern of the beats and the intervals between the beats.

Pulse rhythm

27

Formally it is the systolic pressure minus the diastolic pressure. Theoretically, the systemic pulse pressure can be conceptualized as being proportional to stroke volume, or the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle during systole and inversely proportional to the compliance of the aorta.

Pulse Volume

28

the heart sound produced by closure of the semiluner valves, characterized by the "dub" sound

Second Heart Sound S2

29

Circulation through the left side of the heart, the aorta and its branches, the capillaries that supply the brain and peripheral tissuses, the systemic venous system, and the vena cava.

Systemic Circulation

30

The force or resistance of the blood in the body's blood vessels that helps return blood to the heart.

Systemic Vascular Resistance

31

The phase of ventricular contraction.

Systole

32

The maximum pressure exerted within the arteries when the heart compresses. SBP

Systolic Blood Pressure

33

An excessively fast heart rate greater than 100 bpm in an adult.

Tachycardia

34

Heart sound that is sometimes heard after the second heart sound in children, young adults, pregnant females during the third trimester. AKA ventricular gallop.

Third Heart Sound S3

35

Refers to the flow of blood through arteries and capillaries delivering nutrients and oxygen to cells and removing cellular waste products.

Tissue Perfusion

36

A palpable vibration over the precordium or an artery.

Thrill

37

Heart sound sometimes heard after the second heart sound in children, young adults, and pregnant females during the third trimester. aka third heart sound

Ventricular Gallop S3

38

<80 Diastolic

Normal Blood Pressure

39

120-139 systolic 80-89 Diastolic

Pre-hypertension

40

140-159 systolic 90-99 diastolic

Hypertension stage I

41

>160 systolic >100 diastolic

Hypertension stage II

42

>180 systolic >120 diastolic

Hypertensive Emergency

43

Drop in MAP stimulates SNS, increases the heart rate, & CO, and constricting arterioles. BP increases

Rise in MAP (Mean arteriole pressure) has opposite effect. decreased heart rate, CO and causes arteriolar vasodilation.

Sympathetic nervous system stimulation SNS

44

From the adrenal cortex (fight or flight response) have the same effect as SNS stimulation.

Circulating epinephrine, norepinephrine

45

Responds to renel perfusion. Decrease in renal perfusion stimulates renin release. Increase BP, Increase CO, Systemic Vascular Resistance

Renin-angotensin-aldosterone system RAAS

46

Released from atrial cells in response to stretching by excess blood volume.

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Brain and Atriuretic Peptide BNP

47

Peptide synthesized and released by endothelial and smooth muscle cells in blood vessels. Potent vasodilator.

Adrenomedullin

48

from the posterior pituitary gland, promotes H2O retention and vasoconstriction.

Vasopressor or antidiuretic hormone ADH

49

Primary hypertension which has no identified cause. thought to develop from complex interactions among factors that regulate cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance.

Essential Hypertension

50

The interaction between insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and enothelial function maybe a primary cause of hypertension.
Excess insulin has several effects that potentially contribute to hypertension: Na retention by the kidneys, increase in SNS activity, hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle and changes in ion transport across cell membranes.

Interactions between insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and endothelial function.

51

Hypertension elevated bp resulting from an identifiable underlying process. 5-10% of identified cases of hypertension

Secondary Hypertension

52

systolic bp of 140 mmHg or higher or diastolic bp of 90 mmHg or higher based on the avg. of 3 or more readings taken on separate occasions. major risk factors for coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and renal failure.

Hypertension

53

a Persistantly elevated systemic blood pressure. aka essential hypertension.

Primary hypertension

54

Elevated bp resulting from an identifiable underlying process.

Secondary Hypertension

55

A systolic blood pressure greater than 180 mmHg and diastolic bp higher than 120 mmHg. Also called malignant hypertension

Hypertensive Emergency

56

The average pressure in the arterial circulation throughout the cardiac cycle.

MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure)

57

Parasympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of the arterioles; lowering BP

Parasympathetic nervous system

58

Primary mechanisms. SNS exerts a major effect on peripheral resistance by causing vasoconstriction of the arterioles, thereby increasing BP

Sympathetic nervous system

59

Statins
Antihypertensives
Adrenegic agonist
Calcium-channel blockers
Cardiac glycosides
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
Nitrates
Thromboytics

Parmacologic Therapy