Flashcards in Perfusion Deck (59):
The force that ventricles must overcome to eject their blood volume
A comparison of the apical and radial pulses, which are normally identical. A pulse deficit can indicate certain cardiovascular disorders
An arterial disorder characterized by thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of arterial walls
A heart sound produced by atrial contraction and ejection of blood into the ventricle during late diastole. Also called fourth heart sound.
Atrial gallop S4
A heart rate in an adult of less than 60 bpm
The amount of blood pumped by the ventricles into the pulmonary and systemic circulations in 1 minute.
Cardiac Output CO
Propels blood to organs and their tissues. Generated by Cardiac Output
The phase of ventricular relaxation btwn heart beats.
The minimum pressure within the arteries during diastole.
Diastolic Blood Pressure
The fraction or percentage of the diastole volume that is ejected from the heart during systole.
An indicator of the health of an artery. A healthy, normal artery feels straight, smooth, soft and pliable. Older adults often have inelastic arteries that feel twisted (tortuous) and irregular upon palpation.
Elasticity of the Arterial Wall
A graphic record of the hearts activity. ECG
The heart sound produced by the closure of the AV valve.
First Heart Sound S1
A heart sound produced by atrial contraction and ejection of blood into the ventricle during late diastole. Also called atrial gallop.
Fourth Heart Sound S4
Harsh, blowing sounds caused by disruption of blood into the heart, between the chambers of the heart, or from the heart into the pulmonary or aortic systems.
A below normal blood pressure reading between 85 & 110 mmHg
Insuffient blood supply
The series of sounds identified while taking a blood pressure using a stethoscope.
overweight/obesity, high blood pressure;hypertension, high glucose levels, abnormal lipid metabolism, physical inactivity, smoking
Modifiable risk factors
Aka postural hypotension is a form of low blood pressure that happens when you stand up from sitting or lying down. Feeling dizzy or light headed; maybe faint
A double layer of firoserous membrane that encases and anchors the heart.
A pulse located away from the heart, in the foot or the wrist.
A pulse located at the apex of the heart. aka apical pulse
Point of Maximal Impulse (PMI)
the absence of a palpable pulse waves in a peripheral artery for one or more heart beats, often seen in atrial fibrillation.
The difference between the systolic and diastolic pressure.
The pattern of the beats and the intervals between the beats.
Formally it is the systolic pressure minus the diastolic pressure. Theoretically, the systemic pulse pressure can be conceptualized as being proportional to stroke volume, or the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle during systole and inversely proportional to the compliance of the aorta.
the heart sound produced by closure of the semiluner valves, characterized by the "dub" sound
Second Heart Sound S2
Circulation through the left side of the heart, the aorta and its branches, the capillaries that supply the brain and peripheral tissuses, the systemic venous system, and the vena cava.
The force or resistance of the blood in the body's blood vessels that helps return blood to the heart.
Systemic Vascular Resistance
The phase of ventricular contraction.
The maximum pressure exerted within the arteries when the heart compresses. SBP
Systolic Blood Pressure
An excessively fast heart rate greater than 100 bpm in an adult.
Heart sound that is sometimes heard after the second heart sound in children, young adults, pregnant females during the third trimester. AKA ventricular gallop.
Third Heart Sound S3
Refers to the flow of blood through arteries and capillaries delivering nutrients and oxygen to cells and removing cellular waste products.
A palpable vibration over the precordium or an artery.
Heart sound sometimes heard after the second heart sound in children, young adults, and pregnant females during the third trimester. aka third heart sound
Ventricular Gallop S3
Normal Blood Pressure
120-139 systolic 80-89 Diastolic
140-159 systolic 90-99 diastolic
Hypertension stage I
>160 systolic >100 diastolic
Hypertension stage II
>180 systolic >120 diastolic
Drop in MAP stimulates SNS, increases the heart rate, & CO, and constricting arterioles. BP increases
Rise in MAP (Mean arteriole pressure) has opposite effect. decreased heart rate, CO and causes arteriolar vasodilation.
Sympathetic nervous system stimulation SNS
From the adrenal cortex (fight or flight response) have the same effect as SNS stimulation.
Circulating epinephrine, norepinephrine
Responds to renel perfusion. Decrease in renal perfusion stimulates renin release. Increase BP, Increase CO, Systemic Vascular Resistance
Renin-angotensin-aldosterone system RAAS
Released from atrial cells in response to stretching by excess blood volume.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Brain and Atriuretic Peptide BNP
Peptide synthesized and released by endothelial and smooth muscle cells in blood vessels. Potent vasodilator.
from the posterior pituitary gland, promotes H2O retention and vasoconstriction.
Vasopressor or antidiuretic hormone ADH
Primary hypertension which has no identified cause. thought to develop from complex interactions among factors that regulate cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance.
The interaction between insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and enothelial function maybe a primary cause of hypertension.
Excess insulin has several effects that potentially contribute to hypertension: Na retention by the kidneys, increase in SNS activity, hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle and changes in ion transport across cell membranes.
Interactions between insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and endothelial function.
Hypertension elevated bp resulting from an identifiable underlying process. 5-10% of identified cases of hypertension
systolic bp of 140 mmHg or higher or diastolic bp of 90 mmHg or higher based on the avg. of 3 or more readings taken on separate occasions. major risk factors for coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and renal failure.
a Persistantly elevated systemic blood pressure. aka essential hypertension.
Elevated bp resulting from an identifiable underlying process.
A systolic blood pressure greater than 180 mmHg and diastolic bp higher than 120 mmHg. Also called malignant hypertension
The average pressure in the arterial circulation throughout the cardiac cycle.
MAP (Mean Arterial Pressure)
Parasympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of the arterioles; lowering BP
Parasympathetic nervous system
Primary mechanisms. SNS exerts a major effect on peripheral resistance by causing vasoconstriction of the arterioles, thereby increasing BP
Sympathetic nervous system