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Flashcards in P&P Chapter 1 Deck (25):

What is the difference in defining health by positive or negative terms?

Negatively defining health means health is he absence of disease. Health is one end of a continuum, the other end is death

Positively defining health means both illness and health can exist, at the same time, in one individual. Having a disease is viewed as distinctly different from health, but both conditions can occur simultaneously


What is disease?

Disease is an objective state of ill-health, the pathological process of which can be detected by medical science


What is illness?

Illness is the subjective experience of a loss of health


Explain health vs. wellness argument

Health can be defined as an objective process characterized by functional stability, balance, and integrity. When this definition is used, wellness can be described as the subjective experience of health(or lack there of)


Where is the word health derived from?

From the old English word hoelth, meaning whole of the body.


Most common definition of health

Made by the World Health Organization after WWII

Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity


What are the three ways to classify health conceptualizations?

Health as stability

Health as actualization

Health as actualization and stability


What does health as stability mean?

Health is defined as the maintenance of physiological, functional, and social norms, and it relates to concepts of adaptation and homeostasis


What does health as actualization mean?

Health is defined as the actualization of human potential.

scholars and researchers who adhere to this definition often use the terms health and wellness interchangeably


What does health as actualization and stability mean?

This defines health as the actualization of inherent and acquired human potential through goal-directed behaviour, competent self-care and satisfying relationships with others, while making adjustments as needed to maintain structural integrity in harmony with relevant environments


What is Labonte's (1993) multidimensional conceptualization of health?

Health includes the following qualities:
Feeling vitalizes and full of energy

Having satisfying social relationships

Having a feeling of control over ones life and living conditions

Being able to do things one enjoys

Having a sense of purpose

Feeling connected to the community


What is the medical approach to health?

Medical approach is a historical approach to health in Canada

emphasizes that medical intervention restores health and that health problems are primarily defined as physiological risk factors. Emphasis is on illness care, with less on health promotion or disease prevention

Western style of thought


What is the behavioral approach to health?

They behavioral approach to health is a historical approach to health in Canada

This approach places responsibility for health on the individual, thereby favoring health promotion strategies such as education and social marketing. If people knew the risks, they would engage in healthier behaviour

a report called the Lalonde Report shifted the emphasis from a medical to behavioral approach to health

The Lalonde report broadly defined health determinants as lifestyle, environment, human biology and the organization of health care.

This approach often lead to a focus on lifestyle, focusing on ways to decrease behavioural risk factors (smoking for example)


What is a socio-environmental approach to health?

More modern approach to health in Canada than behavioural or medical

Relates health closely to social structures

Expands Lalonde's health field to emphasize the social context of health and the relationship between personal health behaviors and social and physical environments


What is the Ottawa Charter

The Ottawa Charter (1986) identified requisites for health as:
peace, shelter, education, food, income, stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice, and equity

The charter outlined five major strategies to promote health:
building healthy public-policy, creating supportive environments, strengthen community action, developing personal skills, and reorienting health services


What are the Ottawa Charter's 9 prerequisites for health?

A stable ecosystem
Sustainable resources
Social justice


What are the Ottawa Charter's five major strategies to promote health?

Building healthier public policy

Creating supportive environments

Strengthening community action

Developing personal skills

Reorienting health services


Tell me about the document "achieving health for all"?

Ideas from the Ottawa Charter were incorporated into this document by Epp, the minister of health and welfare, in 1986

Identified 3 major health challenges:
1) reducing inequities
2) increasing prevention
3) enhancing coping mechanisms

Emphasized societies responsibility in providing supports for people experiencing chronic mental conditions, stress, mental illness, problems associated with aging, AND support for caregivers

It's Socioenviromental approach


What are Labonté's risk factor and risk conditions?

In 1993, these were the terms used in the socioenviromenral approach to health to categorize the major determinants of health.

Psychosocial risk factors are complex psychological experiences resulting from social circumstances that include isolation, lack of social support, limited social networks, low self-esteem ,self blame, and low perceived power

Socio environmental risk conditions are social and environmental living conditions that include poverty, low education or occupational status, dangerous or stressful work, dangerous physical environments, pollution, discrimination, relative political or economic powerlessness and inequalities of income or power


Building Healthy Public Policy

Part of Ottawa Charter

Health is the problem of society

up to government at all levels to create public-policy


Create supportive environments

Health promotion strategy of the Ottawa Charter

Giving people the tools they need to be healthy


Strengthen community action

A health promotion strategy of the Ottawa charter

Continuing idea of empowerment

Empowering communities to take action


Developing of personal skills

Health promotion strategy of Ottawa charter

Education could bring people with the tools they need to live their healthiest lives


Reorient health care

Health promotion strategy of the Ottawa charter

Stop putting everything into acute-care

need to think about prevention and how we can empower people to make healthy choices


Population Health Model

Society is responsible for its members health status

Opportunities for healthy living based on social justice, equity and relationships of mutual trust and caring