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What is the inert pair effect?
Where does it occur?

The increased tendency for the s2 pair not to be used in the bonding on decent of the group.
In groups 3,4&5 the lower valencies (+2) become more stable as the group is descended.

1

What electrons do Pb ions in their most stable state use?

Only p2 electrons

2

What is the max covalency of period 2 and why?

Max covalency is 4 as they can only bond using s and p orbitals (s1 p3)
They have no d available

3

How does phosphorous bond in PCl5

It can promote a 3s electron to a 3d orbital, allowing 5 electrons to be available for bonding

4

What happens when NaOH(aq) is added to Al3+ (aq)

White ppt of Al(OH)3(H2O)3 is formed
OH- ions remove protons from complex to turn the H2Os to OH-s

5

What is formed when both Al and Al2O3 is added to NaOH?

Na(Al(OH)4) is formed
With H2(g) for Al and H2O for Al2O3

6

What does Al(aq) do when it acts amphotercially?

Liberates H2(g)

7

What happens when excess NaOH(aq) is added to Al(OH)3(H2O)3

White ppt redissolves and Al(OH)4 -

8

With which element does a similar thing occur when Al(aq) is added to NaOH? And with which element does this trend not occur?

Pb2+
Mg

9

When PbO is added to HCl two things can happen- explain

If warm (above 20°) forms PbCl2(aq)
If cool (below 20°) forms PbCl4(aq)

10

Why does AlCl3 tend to bond with group 5 elements?

It is electron deficient so forms coordinate bonds as G5 element donates lone pair to form a stable octet

11

What is an ionic liquid? Give 2 uses an 2 properties

An organic salt with mpt below 100° so are liquid over a wide temp range
Can replace volatile organic compounds as solvents and catalysts (eg polymerisation of alkenes)

12

Why are ionic liquids useful?

-Allows reactions to be performed under mild conditions
(Reduced energy costs, won't thermally decompose reactants)
-immiscible in organic products so can be separated easily
-non volatile

13

Boron nitride exists in two forms and is-

Isoelectronic with carbon
Hexagonal and cubic forms

14

Compare Boron nitride and graphite

Both-
Layers of hexagonal rings with weak bonds between the layers
3 bonds with one unbonded p-orbital
Can be used as a lubricant
Can form nanotubes
BN-
No delocalised electron (empty unbonded p-orbital) between layers
Insulator and inert
Used as reaction vessel

15

Compare boron nitride and diamond

Both-
cubic structures with 4 covalent bonds from each atom
Really hard
High thermal conductivity
Wear resistant

16

Why is CO a reducing agent and give an example

Readily loses electrons to return to +4 oxidation state
Can be used to extract metals from their ores
Fe2O3 +3CO -> 3CO2 + 2Fe

17

Give an example of why Pb4+ is interesting (with eqn)

Strong oxidising agent
PbO2+ 4HCl -> PbCl2 + Cl2 +2H2O

18

What happens when CO2 reacts with water?

Acidic solutions formed in equilibrium
HCO3- +H+ (CO3)2- + 2H+

19

What is formed when CO2 reacts with NaOH?

Na2CO3 and water are formed if alkali is in excess
Forms NaHCO3 is CO2 is in excess

20

What makes limewater milky?

CaCO3(s)

21

Why can't you isolate Ca(HCO3)2

It will decompose to form CaCO3, CO2 and water

22

What happens if excess CO2 is added to lime water?

Form colourless solution of Ca(HCO3)2 ions

23

What two forms does lead(11)oxide exist as?

Yellow form and red form

24

What lead compounds are insol and sol in water?

PbSO4 insol
PbCl2 sp sol
Pb(NO3)2 sol

25

What happens when PbO is heated in NaOH?

Pb(OH)4 2- is formed as a colourless solution

26

What chloride reacts with water vigorously? Why?

SiCl4
Due to Si being able to accept oxygen's lone pair in its d orbital

27

CCl4 does what with water?

Doesn't react, forms an immiscible layer- no access to d orbitals

28

What do you observe when SiCl4 comes into contact with water?

Reacts vigorously forming fumes of HCl and SiO2(s)

29

What does PbCl2 do with HCl?

Dissolves in conc HCl to form PbCl4 2-