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is an artificial replacement of an absent part of the human body, a therapeutic device to improve or alter function


Dental prosthesis, Restoration / prosthetic appliance

All kind of tooth replacement which is in connection with the teeth, it replaces a tooth, or it is anchored by teeth.
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture.
A broad term applied to any material or prosthesis, that restores or replaces lost tooth structure, teeth or oral tissues (inlay, onlay, overlay, laminate, crown, post and core, bridge, removable denture, obturator)


Dental prosthesis

in a narrower sense is a medical device that replaces tooth or teeth, and if necessary the associated structures as well with a biocompatible artificial material.


Fixed dental prosthesis–general meaning

any dental prosthesis (inlay, onlay, overlay, laminate, crown, post and core, bridge) that is cemented, screwed or mechanically attached or otherwise securely retained to natural teeth, tooth roots, and/or dental implant abutments that furnish the primary support for the dental prosthesis. A fixed prosthesis can be retained on implants by screw, and it can be then removed without the damage of the prosthesis.


Removable dental prosthesis

any dental prosthesis that replaces one or more or all the teeth in a partially or totally edentulous arch. It can be removed from the mouth and replaced at will, it can be readily inserted and removed without damaging the anchors or abutments


Complete denture

A removable dental prosthesis that replaces the entire dentition and associated structures of the maxillae or mandible; called a complete removable dental prosthesis.


Removable partial denture

It is a dental device that restores one or more, but not all the natural teeth and associated structures, its retention and support are provided by the natural teeth (dental implants) and/or mucosa (and under it the bone). It occupies more space in the mouth then the teeth, the mucosa and the edentulous ridge are also covered, it is connected to the natural teeth, and the patient himself can remove and insert it.


Anatomical crown

(corona dentis) That portion of a tooth, which is occlusal from the dentinoenamel junction, covered by enamel, it is appropriate for biting and/or chewing.


Clinical crown

the portion of a tooth that extends from the occlusal table or incisal edge to the free gingival margin, part of the tooth, which can be seen in the oral cavity, is suitable for chewing, its length is changing through lifetime.


Full coverage crown

an artificial replacement that restores the missing tooth structure by surrounding the appropriately prepared tooth, post and core or implant-abutment surface, gives back its anatomical form and function, it is cemented to the prepared tooth surface. (it can be also fixed by screwing to dental implant abutments). This way the crown replaces the due to caries or other damage lost tooth structure, or it makes the tooth with discoloration, irregular shape or position more esthetic, or provides anchorage for another prosthetic appliance.


Partial veneer crown

is a restoration that restores all but one coronal surface of a prepared tooth (mesial, distal, lingual, and occlusal/incisal), usually not covering the buccal/labial surface, this way the original color and shape of the tooth remains almost intact. In the molar region sometimes instead of the vestibular surface the oral surface can be free of preparation and coverage.


Chemical protection of the prepared tooth

Process used for decreasing the dentinal sensitivity of an abutment prepared for crown or for laminate veneer, by sealing the opened dentin tubules. Usually coating solutions are used for this purpose.


Prosthetic protection of the prepared tooth

Process used for decreasing the harmful consequences of preparation of an abutment prepared for crown or for laminate veneer, like dentinal sensitivity, tooth migration, aesthetic, phonetic disadvantages, and changes in occlusal relations. Usually temporary crowns or bridges are produced for this purpose.


Scutan method

A method used for creating immediate crowns or bridges. In essence an elastic impression is taken prior to tooth preparation and the original shape of the teeth are recorded by this impression.


Tangentional preparation (feather edge, knife edge, chisel edge)

if a tangent, straight line, is fit to the axial walls of the prepared tooth surface, this line has contact with the whole axial surface. Knife edge praparation is a tapered preparation that has maximum tooth reduction at occlusal, incisal surfaces and tapers to zero cutting at the gingival termination.
Advantage: simple, easy to make, conservation of tooth structure, the chance for pulp damage is small, excess cement can flow out from the crown at insertion
Disadvantages: it can be difficult to recognize the end of prepared surface on the die (consequence: crown may be to long, too wide – the marginal fit is not precise), subgingival preparation line has to be done; consequence: difficult impression taking. It doesn’t provide sufficient bulk for the cast crown.
Indications: cast metal crown, metal ceramic crown –with metal collar


Shoulder finish line

a finish line design for tooth preparation in which the gingival floor meets the external axial surfaces at right angle or obtuse angle, this angle can be rounded or cornered.


90º shoulder finish line

a finish line design for tooth preparation in which the gingival floor meets the external axial surfaces at approximately a right angle.
Advantage: distinct margin, easy to make relating to chamfer, provides optimal aesthetic, and enough bulk for the restorative material
Disadvantage: great amount of tooth structure is removed, chance for pulp damage is great, cannot be carried out on all the teeth
Indications: full ceramic crown (rounded inner angle), facial margin of metal ceramic crown


Chamfer finish line (Orton finish line)

a finish line design for tooth preparation in which the gingival aspect meets the external axial surface at a rounded obtuse angle.
Advantage: distinct margin, easy to recognize on the die, excess cement can flow out from the crown at insertion, adequate bulk, if the chamfer is deep enough,
Disadvantage: care needed to avoid unsupported lip of enamel, more difficult preparation, if not enough deep, there is not enough place for metal ceramic crown, more tooth tissue has to be removed
Indications: first choice in many cases, cast metal crown, metal-ceramic crown


Retention form

the feature of a tooth preparation that resists dislodgment of a crown in a vertical direction or along the path of placement. Forces are bigger in case of an abutment tooth, eg. clasp holding crown, precision attachment.


Resistance form

the features of a tooth preparation that enhance the stability of a restoration and resist dislodgment along an axis other than the path of placement (not vertical forces)


Covered tooth/die surface

the area of the prepared tooth covered by the marginal gingiva



is the negative likeness of the teeth and surrounding structures, which contains those areas of the mouth where the planned restoration will be fabricated as well as the surrounding hard and soft tissues and their real surface configuration.


Anatomical or preliminary impression

a negative likeness of the oral structures, over dimensioned, records a static status. It is made for the purpose of diagnosis, treatment planning, documentation or the fabrication of a special/individual tray


Precision impression

A highly precise impression which contains all the oral structures which are necessary to prepare a dental appliance especially the prepared tooth surfaces (also the prepared but covered tooth surfaces) and from which a highly precise cast can be obtained



a life-size likeness of some desired form. Cast is a positive reproduction of a part or parts of the oral cavity, which is created by the pouring plaster into any type of impression.


Diagnostic (study) cast

Life-size reproduction of a part or parts of the oral cavity for the purpose of study and treatment planning (inclination of teeth, planning of partial prosthesis, or implantation, orthodontics) or documentation (record of initial and terminal state)


Anatomical/preliminary cast

Positive copy of the oral structures, a cast formed from the anatomical/preliminary impression for use in diagnosis or the fabrication of an individual/special tray.


Precision cast

is a highly accurate positive reproduction of a part or parts of the oral cavity which is created by the pouring the plaster/dental stone into the precision impression, it contains all the oral structures necessary to fabricate the dental appliance (also the covered tooth/die surfaces), the die (for which the crown, etc. is prepared) can be removed and inserted into the exact original position in the cast


Removable die system

a segmented final cast system that permits accurate removal and replacement of dies of individually prepared teeth


Temporary crown

A prosthetic appliance which is prepared for the time period between the tooth preparation and the delivery of the definitive crown, generally it is fixed with temporary cement, in order to be able to removal and fit again during try in sessions.