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Flashcards in P24 Case Studies Deck (15):


  • Outline the key authorities on Vietnam (10)

  • SCHULZINGER - Strictly a Cold War affair. US credibility major stickiness factor. 
  • ANDREW PRESTON - Advisors to blame - esp. McGeorge Bundy (NSA Advisor). 1961-1965, Bundy enlarged apparatus of National Security Council substantially, to effective cabinet position. Rostow, Bundy, Forrester - supporters of containment theory.
  • ERNEST MAY: Advance of communsim on Korean peninsula = grave threat to US National Security.
  • LONGEVALL: Kennedy must share some burden. Translated MACV into MAAG. 1962 military advisor influx.
  • HALL: Failings come down to ignorance. Rolling thunder = unifying reference to collection of anti-American stakeholders. Confusing Vietnamese national struggle for cold war agenda.
  • HESS: Vietnam broke the power-morality link.
  • HALBERSTAM: Quagmire thesis.
  • MCNAMARA: Escalation was 'terribly wrong' in retrospect.
  • WESTMORELAND: CO USAA - Media and homefront lost battle.
  • BERNARD FALL: "Dreaming different dreams than the French but walking in the same footsteps".



Provide the revisionist perspectives on Vietnam

  • Lost Cause - undermined by media and popular protest @ home.
  • First Lost Victory - misapplication of power - never full-scale war.
  • Necessary War - War important to national security (invented by FDR)
  • Strategy for Defeat - Military limited by civilian leaders
  • Hearts and Minds - Little effort invested in winning the people to America - Operation Cedar Falls, 1967.



What are the Orthodox positions on Vietnam?

  • Unwinnable war - American forces were undermined by the forces of history.
  • Rational disengagement - Post Tet offensive.



How did Asian minorities react to the Vietnam War?

Unlike many Americans in the anti-war movement, they viewed the war “not just as imperialist but specifically as anti-Asian.” Groups like the Asian American Political Alliance (AAPA), the Bay Area Coalition Against the War (BAACAW), and the Asian Americans for Action made opposition to the war their main focus.



List and detail the authorities on the Cold War.

  • LUNDESTAD - Empire by Invitation. Defence spending 4x post-WWII. Britain 70% in favour of Marshall Plan; 47% favour in France; 63% in Germany. Eroded by Third Force.
  • KRAMER - Compared to Warsaw Pact, NATO was purely military venture. Economic success of Japan important to warding off communism in Asia. Commitment to Capitalism over Democracy - lack of Marshall Plan for Africa.
  • DUDZIAK - Civil Rights failings in US undermined Cold War credibility. Impact of Little Rock reverberated internationally. Times of India - "Armed Men Cordon Off White School: Racial Desegregation in Arkansas Prevented"
  • LEFFLER  - Democracy was burden: Stalin could pursue agenda unihibited by democratic concerns. 27m Russians die in WWII. Compare trauma to Pearl Harbour. NSC-68 - containment policy document.
  • ZUBOK & PLESHAKOV - USSR as imperial civilisation - needed expansionism.
  • HERZOG - Religious endeavour - 1956 E pluribus unum changed to In God we Trust. Christian nation construct.
  • WHITFIELD - Mass consumption of Red Scare - McArthyism.
  • WESTAD - Global Cold War. 



List some key facts about the Cold War

  • STALIN - Traditionally, seen as wanting to destroy western interests. Practically limited - merely wanted German reparation - Russia bore the brunt of war. US as provocateur. 
  • US 1940s - Italian election, 1948 - US bankrolls centre parties through CIA. USSR - Czech coup.
  • SPUTNIK - 1957
  • ANGLOA - USA wanted to avoid another Vietnam, but did not want to see MPLA communist victory - bankrolled opposing FNLA and UNITA forces. Congress blocked funding after covert missions failed. Victory of MPLA and Vietcong showed willingness of the developing world to lean to communism
  • DETENTE - 1970s (Helsinki Accord, 1975) - SALT
    • First blow - Russians placing SS-20 missiles in Central Europe, 1976

  • GORBACHEV - Glasnost and Perestroika - opening of Russia - undermined.



Provide a timeline of presidential action

  • Andrew Johnson - 65-9 -> Acquires Alaska. Senate prohibits acq. of Hawaii, Cuba, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. Monroe main policy.
  • Grant - 69-77 -> Encouraged guerillas in Cuba against Spain. Santo Domingo annex blocked by Congress. Alabama Claims - $15.5m from UK.
  • Arthur - 81-5 -> Invests in Steel navy.
  • Cleveland - 85-9 -> Twenty Inch Gun Missive - Opposition to Britain in Venezuala
  • McKinley - 97-01 -> War with Spain - US obtains Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines. Cuba as protectorate.
  • Roosevelt - 1907 -> Great White Fleet Tour (infl. by Mahan on Navy)



Orville Platt Quote

“A policy of isolation did well enough when we were an embryo nation, but today things are different… We are sixty-five million of people, the most advanced and powerful on earth, and regard our future welfare demands an abandonment of the doctrines of isolation”



List the major historians commenting on the rise of America in the early 20th century

  • Laderman - Expansion from below - Christian missionaries, reaction to the Armenian Massacre.
  • Ninkovich - Roosevelt -> imperialism as natural outgrowth of US continental expansion
  • Rosenburg - Ideology of liberal-developmentalism as motivating actions. Promotional State - US subservient to economic expansion demanded by farmers and industrialists. Dollar Diplomacy - Taft (1912).
  • Zakaria - US was underexpansionist, as national interests were initially driven at a state rather than federal level. 



Detail facts about US Growth

  • 12 new states 1865-1900.
  • 430 million acres occupied - more than previous 300 years.
  • Population 36 million to 100 million.
  • Productivity 2.5% growth per annum.
  • Oil production - 5.2 million to 209.5 million.



List all of the relevant historians from politics and the state (US P24)

  • JACOBS - US state power limited when it comes to tax. ZEILZER - tax increase only palatable during times of emergency.
  • FISHER - De jure - congress cannot delegate power, de facto, SC allows CON to set a general agenda for other branches to fill in. Opposed in 1935.
  • McGIRR - Sunbelt population - 130k in 1940, 1.5m in 1970. Due to military industrial complex. Orange Country - centre of military jobs.
  • CARTER - CON power in 1994 - Contract with America (Gingrich) - transferred welfare from the undeserving poor to middle classes. 50% cut in capital gains tax, $500 per child tax credit, repeal of federal income tax marriage penalty. 
  • PATTERSON - Racism in the courts - 1984, Goetz, white, shoots 4 blacks. Acquitted on self-defence. 90% white support, 52% blacks oppose. Congress empowered after Watergate. Takes lead on legislation (aid to handicapped children, bilingual education etc.)
  • DERTHICK - Social Security 'crowning achievement' of ND.
  • O'BRIEN - Impartiality of the SC is a myth. Highly political. 'Myth of the Robe'. "Public opinion serves to curb the Court when it threatens to go too far or too fast in its rulings". 
  •  KRUSE - 1962 Peyton panic saw 30,000 whites leave. 1960-1970: -60,000, 1970s: 100,000.  



O'Brien on Nixon and Supreme Court vs. Warren Court

  • Nixon’s appointment of Burger, Blackmun, Powell, and Rehnquist, however, failed to turn the Court around to forge a constitutional counter revolution.
  • 76% of Warren court rulings each term went in the direction of protecting and minorities against the government. 



Roe vs Wade.

  • Branded as the 20th Century’s Dred Scott Case - as it sought to "deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of the law"

  • 1973 Roe v Wade 
  • 1983 City of Akron - reconsideration of Roe
  • 1989 Webster - Further restrictions on abortion
    • Life begins from conception - unborn children have protectable interest in life, health and wellbeing.
    • Physicians to test foetus "gestational age, weight and lung capacity" 
    • Prohibits public employees and facilities from being used to perform abortions 
    • unlawful to use public funds employees and facilites for the purpose of encouraging an abortion
  • 1992 Casey - Throws out Roe's trimester



List historians and points relevant to FDR and ND

  • Badger - ND had little ideological coherence. See FDR commitment to forestry and shelterbelt project, at cost of low-cost housing. Driven by Brain's Trust - Moley, Tugwell. Shifting constellation of actors.
  • Kennedy - Roosevelt built…. A new [bloc of] capital-intensive industries, investment banks, and internationally oriented commercial banks. 
  • Brinkley - “a chaos of experimentation,” and being bereft of ideologies. Changing opinion on govt fiscal role made quantative easing possible.
  • Jeffries - 3 ND phases. 33-4 - NRA and AAA. 2nd - Wagner, SSA, Tax; 3rd - attempted Keynesian fiscal policy.
  • Dallek - Roosevelt flexible in 20s on FP front.



Evidence the power of the Senate and outside actors.

  • Cohesive bloc of silver senators from the sparsely settled mountain states who often held the balance of power in the Senate
    • 1933 - silver bought at 64.5 cents an ounce - 21 cents above market average. An industry employing ~5000 would wring the government of $1.5 billion dollars - more than spent on farming.
  • CIO unions contributed the enormous sum of $770000 to the President’s campaign chest…$469000 of it came from the Lewis’ United Mine Workers. these contributions marked a historic shift in the financial base of theDemocratic party, as business sources dried up, the UMW’s donation made the union the party’s largest single benefactor