P24 Case Studies Flashcards Preview

Part II | HAP - Power > P24 Case Studies > Flashcards

Flashcards in P24 Case Studies Deck (15):
1

VIETNAM

  • Outline the key authorities on Vietnam (10)

  • SCHULZINGER - Strictly a Cold War affair. US credibility major stickiness factor. 
  • ANDREW PRESTON - Advisors to blame - esp. McGeorge Bundy (NSA Advisor). 1961-1965, Bundy enlarged apparatus of National Security Council substantially, to effective cabinet position. Rostow, Bundy, Forrester - supporters of containment theory.
  • ERNEST MAY: Advance of communsim on Korean peninsula = grave threat to US National Security.
  • LONGEVALL: Kennedy must share some burden. Translated MACV into MAAG. 1962 military advisor influx.
  • HALL: Failings come down to ignorance. Rolling thunder = unifying reference to collection of anti-American stakeholders. Confusing Vietnamese national struggle for cold war agenda.
  • HESS: Vietnam broke the power-morality link.
  • HALBERSTAM: Quagmire thesis.
  • MCNAMARA: Escalation was 'terribly wrong' in retrospect.
  • WESTMORELAND: CO USAA - Media and homefront lost battle.
  • BERNARD FALL: "Dreaming different dreams than the French but walking in the same footsteps".

2

VIETNAM

Provide the revisionist perspectives on Vietnam

  • Lost Cause - undermined by media and popular protest @ home.
  • First Lost Victory - misapplication of power - never full-scale war.
  • Necessary War - War important to national security (invented by FDR)
  • Strategy for Defeat - Military limited by civilian leaders
  • Hearts and Minds - Little effort invested in winning the people to America - Operation Cedar Falls, 1967.

3

VIETNAM

What are the Orthodox positions on Vietnam?

  • Unwinnable war - American forces were undermined by the forces of history.
  • Rational disengagement - Post Tet offensive.

4

VIETNAM

How did Asian minorities react to the Vietnam War?

Unlike many Americans in the anti-war movement, they viewed the war “not just as imperialist but specifically as anti-Asian.” Groups like the Asian American Political Alliance (AAPA), the Bay Area Coalition Against the War (BAACAW), and the Asian Americans for Action made opposition to the war their main focus.

5

COLD WAR

List and detail the authorities on the Cold War.

  • LUNDESTAD - Empire by Invitation. Defence spending 4x post-WWII. Britain 70% in favour of Marshall Plan; 47% favour in France; 63% in Germany. Eroded by Third Force.
  • KRAMER - Compared to Warsaw Pact, NATO was purely military venture. Economic success of Japan important to warding off communism in Asia. Commitment to Capitalism over Democracy - lack of Marshall Plan for Africa.
  • DUDZIAK - Civil Rights failings in US undermined Cold War credibility. Impact of Little Rock reverberated internationally. Times of India - "Armed Men Cordon Off White School: Racial Desegregation in Arkansas Prevented"
  • LEFFLER  - Democracy was burden: Stalin could pursue agenda unihibited by democratic concerns. 27m Russians die in WWII. Compare trauma to Pearl Harbour. NSC-68 - containment policy document.
  • ZUBOK & PLESHAKOV - USSR as imperial civilisation - needed expansionism.
  • HERZOG - Religious endeavour - 1956 E pluribus unum changed to In God we Trust. Christian nation construct.
  • WHITFIELD - Mass consumption of Red Scare - McArthyism.
  • WESTAD - Global Cold War. 

6

COLD WAR FACTS

List some key facts about the Cold War

  • STALIN - Traditionally, seen as wanting to destroy western interests. Practically limited - merely wanted German reparation - Russia bore the brunt of war. US as provocateur. 
  • US 1940s - Italian election, 1948 - US bankrolls centre parties through CIA. USSR - Czech coup.
  • SPUTNIK - 1957
  • ANGLOA - USA wanted to avoid another Vietnam, but did not want to see MPLA communist victory - bankrolled opposing FNLA and UNITA forces. Congress blocked funding after covert missions failed. Victory of MPLA and Vietcong showed willingness of the developing world to lean to communism
  • DETENTE - 1970s (Helsinki Accord, 1975) - SALT
    • First blow - Russians placing SS-20 missiles in Central Europe, 1976

  • 1979 - AFGHAN INVASION
  • GORBACHEV - Glasnost and Perestroika - opening of Russia - undermined.

7

BECOMING A WORLD POWER - PRESIDENTS

Provide a timeline of presidential action

  • Andrew Johnson - 65-9 -> Acquires Alaska. Senate prohibits acq. of Hawaii, Cuba, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. Monroe main policy.
  • Grant - 69-77 -> Encouraged guerillas in Cuba against Spain. Santo Domingo annex blocked by Congress. Alabama Claims - $15.5m from UK.
  • Arthur - 81-5 -> Invests in Steel navy.
  • Cleveland - 85-9 -> Twenty Inch Gun Missive - Opposition to Britain in Venezuala
  • McKinley - 97-01 -> War with Spain - US obtains Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines. Cuba as protectorate.
  • Roosevelt - 1907 -> Great White Fleet Tour (infl. by Mahan on Navy)

8

BECOMING A WORLD POWER

Orville Platt Quote

“A policy of isolation did well enough when we were an embryo nation, but today things are different… We are sixty-five million of people, the most advanced and powerful on earth, and regard our future welfare demands an abandonment of the doctrines of isolation”

9

BECOMING A WORLD POWER - HISTORIANS

List the major historians commenting on the rise of America in the early 20th century

  • Laderman - Expansion from below - Christian missionaries, reaction to the Armenian Massacre.
  • Ninkovich - Roosevelt -> imperialism as natural outgrowth of US continental expansion
  • Rosenburg - Ideology of liberal-developmentalism as motivating actions. Promotional State - US subservient to economic expansion demanded by farmers and industrialists. Dollar Diplomacy - Taft (1912).
  • Zakaria - US was underexpansionist, as national interests were initially driven at a state rather than federal level. 

10

BECOMING A WORLD POWER - FACTS

Detail facts about US Growth

  • 12 new states 1865-1900.
  • 430 million acres occuppied - more than previous 300 years.
  • Population 36 million to 100 million.
  • Productivity 2.5% growth per annum.
  • Oil production - 5.2 million to 209.5 million.

11

POLITICS AND THE STATE - HISTORIANS

List all of the relevant historians from politics and the state (US P24)

  • JACOBS - US state power limited when it comes to tax. ZEILZER - tax increase only palatable during times of emergency.
  • FISHER - De jure - congress cannot delegate power, de facto, SC allows CON to set a general agenda for other branches to fill in. Opposed in 1935.
  • McGIRR - Sunbelt population - 130k in 1940, 1.5m in 1970. Due to military industrial complex. Orange Country - centre of military jobs.
  • CARTER - CON power in 1994 - Contract with America (Gingrich) - transferred welfare from the undeserving poor to middle classes. 50% cut in capital gains tax, $500 per child tax credit, repeal of federal income tax marriage penalty. 
  • PATTERSON - Racism in the courts - 1984, Goetz, white, shoots 4 blacks. Acquitted on self-defence. 90% white support, 52% blacks oppose. Congress empowered after Watergate. Takes lead on legislation (aid to handicapped children, bilingual education etc.)
  • DERTHICK - Social Security 'crowning achievement' of ND.
  • O'BRIEN - Impartiality of the SC is a myth. Highly political. 'Myth of the Robe'. "Public opinion serves to curb the Court when it threatens to go too far or too fast in its rulings". 
  •  KRUSE - 1962 Peyton panic saw 30,000 whites leave. 1960-1970: -60,000, 1970s: 100,000.  

12

POLITICS AND THE STATE - SUPREME COURT

O'Brien on Nixon and Supreme Court vs. Warren Court

  • Nixon’s appointment of Burger, Blackmun, Powell, and Rehnquist, however, failed to turn the Court around to forge a constitutional counter revolution.
  • 76% of Warren court rulings each term went in the direction of protecting and minorities against the government. 

13

APOLITICS AND THE STATE - SUPREME COURT

Roe vs Wade.

  • Branded as the 20th Century’s Dred Scott Case - as it sought to "deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of the law"

  • 1973 Roe v Wade 
  • 1983 City of Akron - reconsideration of Roe
  • 1989 Webster - Further restrictions on abortion
    • Life begins from conception - unborn children have protectable interest in life, health and wellbeing.
    • Physicians to test foetus "gestational age, weight and lung capacity" 
    • Prohibits public employees and facilities from being used to perform abortions 
    • unlawful to use public funds employees and facilites for the purpose of encouraging an abortion
  • 1992 Casey - Throws out Roe's trimester

14

FDR - HISTORIANS

List historians and points relevant to FDR and ND

  • Badger - ND had little ideological coherence. See FDR commitment to forestry and shelterbelt project, at cost of low-cost housing. Driven by Brain's Trust - Moley, Tugwell. Shifting constellation of actors.
  • Kennedy - Roosevelt built…. A new [bloc of] capital-intensive industries, investment banks, and internationally oriented commercial banks. 
  • Brinkley - “a chaos of experimentation,” and being bereft of ideologies. Changing opinion on govt fiscal role made quantative easing possible.
  • Jeffries - 3 ND phases. 33-4 - NRA and AAA. 2nd - Wagner, SSA, Tax; 3rd - attempted Keynesian fiscal policy.
  • Dallek - Roosevelt flexible in 20s on FP front.

15

ND 

Evidence the power of the Senate and outside actors.

  • Cohesive bloc of silver senators from the sparsely settled mountain states who often held the balance of power in the Senate
    • 1933 - silver bought at 64.5 cents an ounce - 21 cents above market average. An industry employing ~5000 would wring the government of $1.5 billion dollars - more than spent on farming.
  • CIO unions contributed the enormous sum of $770000 to the President’s campaign chest…$469000 of it came from the Lewis’ United Mine Workers. these contributions marked a historic shift in the financial base of theDemocratic party, as business sources dried up, the UMW’s donation made the union the party’s largest single benefactor