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Flashcards in Power: Specific Case Studies Deck (148):

Mary Beard, Women and Power

Detail how Homer's Odyssey excludes the voice of women.

  • GENERAL: About Odysseus and the Trojan War.
  • SPECIFIC: Odysseyus's wife, Penelope, is left for many years as Odysseus is at war. She is constantly pursued by other men whilst bringing up her son, Telemachus. When Penelope goes to criticise a bard, she is stopped by Telemachus, who states 'mother, go back up into your quarters, and take up your own work, the loom and the distaff... speech will be the business of men, all men, and of me most of all; for mine is the power in this household."
    • Homer suggests a critical part of becoming a man is to silence women. 
    • First recorded instance of man silencing woman. 


Mary Beard, Women and Power

Detail how Aristophanes undermines the capacity for women to have a voice in the fourth century B.C.

  • Comedy - fictional situation in which women run the state, but lack the capacity to speak publicly.
    • Comedy from being unable to adapt language from private setting (sexually-oriented)


Mary Beard

How did Ovid's Metamorphosis silence women?

  • Epic about changing shape.
  • Women transformed through metamorphosis:
    • Io transformed into a cow
    • Echo (nymph) transformed into an... echo.
      • Even whilst stripping of voice, Philomena (who lost her tongue) was able to denounce her rapist by weaving a tapestry


Mary Beard

What are the exceptions which permitted women to speak?

  • To testify as victims (Rape, murder)
  • To defend their homes, children and husbands. Hortensia was permitted to speak publicly in Rome after being subjected to a special wealth tax to fund a dubious war effort.


Mary Beard

What did Dio Chrysostom ask of his audience in 2 A.D.?

  • To imagine a situation where ‘an entire community was struck by the following strange affliction: all the men suddenly got female voices, and no male - child or adult - could say anything in a manly way.'
    • This emphasised the importance of the deep male voice as a point of authority. In modernity, we can see echos of this in the voice training of Margaret Thatcher


Mary Beard

How were women with voices portrayed historically?

  • As freakish androgynes - Elizabeth I “I know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a king of England too.” There is no evidence to suggest this was actually said, nor that she wrote it (no eyewitnesses). This was written 40 years after the event.
    • Alt., this voice is constructed by male agents with ulterior motives - Sojourner Truth -  “Ain’t I a Woman?” “I have borne 13 chilren, and seen ‘em mos’ all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother’s grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain’t I a woman…”. This version was written up a decade later, and the famous line was certainly not hers - her words were translated into a Southern drawl, to match the abolitionist message.


Mary Beard

Provide a synopsis of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's Herland

  • A land where there exists a nation of solely women, and have a topic state - with sustainable agriculture, delicious food, peace, education - and a state of parthenogenesis (no men, no need for men for reproduction). Three men find Herland, and the narrative looks at how they attempted to impose male mastery and sexual dominance. 


Mary Beard

How is Clytemnestra presented in Aeschylus's Agamemnon?

  • 458 BC - antiheroine Clytemnestra embodied the ideology that a woman ceases to be a woman with the application of power. To be a woman is to be weak, vice versa. Aeschylus uses male terms to describe Clytemnestra, “with manly purpose…. thinking like a man”. This illegitimate grab of power is answered for when the children of Clytemnestra kill her.

  • Amazonian women - Greek mythology - presented as monstrous.


Mary Beard

What is the story of Medusa?

Medusa was a beautiful woman raped by Poseidon in the temple of Athena. For her crime, she was punished (sacrilege) by becoming the hideous creature who can turn all to stone. Beard suggests that the snakes are obviously phallic.


Joseph Nye

Provide evidence for the American Colossus

  • “Not since Rome has one nation loomed so large above the others.”

  • French foreign minister Hubert Védrin, 1999 that the United States had gone beyond its superpower status of the twentieth century. “U.S. supremacy today extends to the economy, currency, military areas, lifestyle, language and the products of mass culture that inundate the world, forming thought and fascinating even the enemies of the United States.”


Evidence direct power through NATO

  • NATO's military power reversed Slobodan Milosevic's ethnic cleansing of Kosovo, and the promise of economic aid to Serbia's devastated economy reversed the Serbian government's initial disinclination to hand Milosevic over to the Hague tribunal.


What has caused a movement away from overt hard power to soft power?

Nuclear arsenals. MAD has reduced the capacity for direct intervention between major powers to be decisive in conflict.


Joseph Nye

What did Hubert Védrine argue about Americans?

Americans are so powerful because they can “inspire the dreams and desires of others, thanks to the mastery of global images through film and television and because, for these same reasons, large numbers of students from other countries come to the United States to finish their studies.”



What did Nixon state in the 1970s concerning the balance of power?

“the only time in the history of the world that we have had any extended periods of peace is when there has been a balance of power. It is when one nation becomes infinitely more powerful in relation to its potential competitors that the danger of war arises.”


Who was the world power in the 16th century, what was their power built upon?

Spain - Gold bullion, colonial trade, mercenary armies, dynastic ties



Who was the world power in the seventeenth century, what was their power premised on?

Netherlands - Trade, capital markets and navy


Who was the world power in the eighteenth century, what was their power premised on?

France - Population, rural industry, public administration, army, culture


Who was the world power in the nineteenth century, what was their power premised on?

Britain - Industry, political cohesion, finance and credit, liberal norms, island location (easy to defend)


Who was the world power in the twentieth century, what was their power premised on?

US - Economic scale, scientific and technical leadership, location, military forces and alliances, universalistic culture an liberal international regimes


Who was the world power in the twenty-first century, what was their power premised on?

US: Technological leadership, military and economic scale, soft power, hub of transnational communications


Nye - what is a failing of Thatcher/ Nixon outlook on power?

Both the Nixon and Thatcher views are too mechanical because they ignore soft power. America is an exception, says Josef Joffe, “because the ‘hyperpower’ is also the most alluring and seductive society in history. Napoleon had to rely on bayonets to spread France's revolutionary creed.


What does Nye suggest about Iraq/Iran relations?

Iraq and Iran both dislike the United States and might be expected to work together to balance American power in the Persian Gulf, but they worry even more about each other.


This is v reductionist. Both have independent agency, and reason for disliking the West. See Toby Dodge (MEMS)


Why is it wrong to suggest that China is an emerging force in the world economy?

In fact, the “rise of China” is a misnomer. “Reemergence” would be more accurate, since by size and history the Middle Kingdom has long been a major power in East Asia. Technically and economically, China was the world's leader (though without global reach) from 500 to 1500.


Nye - what fears existed aronud Japan?

Only a decade ago Americans feared being overtaken by the Japanese. A 1989 Newsweek article put it succinctly: “In boardrooms and government bureaus around the world, the uneasy question is whether Japan is about to become a superpower, supplanting America as the colossus of the Pacific and perhaps even the world's No. 1 nation.”


Describe Japan's growth experience during the 20th century

On the eve of World War II, Japan had accounted for 5 percent of world industrial production. Devastated by the war, it did not regain that level until 1964. From 1950 to 1974, Japan averaged a remarkable 10 percent annual growth rate, and by the 1980s it had become the world second largest economy, with 15 percent of world product.


Who wrote 'information is power'?

Francis Bacon, over 400 years ago.


At what rate did the internet grow?

Traffic on the Internet has been doubling every hundred days for the past few years. In 1993, there were about fifty web sites in the world; by the end of decade, that number had surpassed five million.


Nye: What are the 3 dimensions of information?

  • 1. Flows of data such as news and statistics.
  • 2. Information used for advantage in competitive situations.
  • 3. Strategic information - knowledge of your competitor's game plan.


Nye: What is the paradox of plenty?

A plentitude of information leads to a poverty of attention.


Present a counterfactual which could apply to the utility of media?

Iraq might have found it easier to have won acceptance for its view of the invasion of Kuwait as a postcolonial vindication, analogous to India's 1975 capture of Goa, if CNN had framed the issue from Baghdad rather than from Atlanta (from which Saddam was portrayed as analogous to Hitler in the 1930s). 


What is the oldest form of globalisation?

The oldest form of globalization is environmental interdependence. For example, the first smallpox epidemic is recorded in Egypt in 1350 B.C. The disease reached China in A.D. 49, Europe after 700, the Americas in 1520, and Australia in 1789.


What could be said about economic globalisation?

Economic globalization fell dramatically between 1914 and 1945, while military globalization increased to new heights during the two world wars, as did many aspects of social globalization


What has the proliferation of technology led to?

As technology spreads, less powerful actors become empowered. Terrorism is the recent dramatic example, but consider also the relations between transnational corporations and poor countries.


Clark: Who are the usual writers of accounts of power?

Sociologists, political scientists - no consensus among historians.


What are the three German terms for 'Power'?

  • Macht (the capacity of a powerful individual to achieve an objective)
  • Herrschaft (personal dominion exercised by feudal lord, monarch or dictator)
  • Gewalt (Violence or force)


What is the paradox of small allies?

Robert Keohane - the capacity of small, insignificant partnerships to block action (entangling alliances)


Arthur Schlesigner: what did LBJ find inconceivable? 

 “found it viscerally inconceivable that what Walt Rostow kept telling him was the greatest power in the world could not even dispose of a collection of night riders in black pyjamas”


What did Christine Carpenter say about the War of the Roses?

War of the Roses resulted in structural shift in the relationship between gentries and nobilities - refocused authority on the monarchical state + permitted muscular Tudor rule.


What did Samuel Pfuendorf state about states?

  • The legitimacy of states derived from the need to forestall disorder through the concentration of authority.
  • Rationale for the extension of the power of the state - against the libertas of the estate, Pufendorf asserted the necessitas of the state.


Why was the large Chinese state pervasive through the centuries?

The Chinese state's resilience was premised on the ruler's success in forging alliances with landed warrior nobilities across the regions. Control was not static; it fluctuated with time.


How did the Ming dynasty extend its power assertion?

  • Until 1720s, state had little control over non-Han people on the southern periphery.
  • Ming dynasty -> introduction of ‘native chiefs’ who ruled in the localities and received investiture from the central state.
  • Continued under Qing - the native chiefs coordinated the payment of land and labour-service tax, played a key role in borderland defence, and were expected to render tribute to Beijing every three years. 


Why did regions like Guangxi rebel against Yongzhen?

Yongzhen wanted to rule unilaterally. The restriction of chieftain agency was met with resistance. 


What happened in 8th century Japan?

Centralised polity established; displaced chiefdoms. Law codes of 705 and 757 affirmed the position of the ‘Heavenly Sovereign’ in Kyoto.


What does Clark suggest was the situation by the 15th century in Japan?

 Rebellions and inter-clan warfare left the state court an ‘empty shell’


What happened during the Tokugawa shogunate?

  • 17,000 officials; collapsed in 1867
  • Undermined by the growing independence of daimyo - regional magnates who conceived of their landholdings as ‘autonomous principalities’. They began to act as little shoguns, with own laws and currencies, taxes and administrative systems. 


What does Clark suggest about the Tokugawa beneficiaries?

“Here again we may discern the familiar dialectic: the daimyos were in the first instance the beneficiaries Tokugawa supremacy and the instruments of Tokugawa authority in the regions, but with time they began to suck power out of the centre and accrue it to themselves”


Clark: How did power vary within Mexico?

State capacity to wield power varied with the landscape: Hills and mountains were associated with ‘wildness, violence and political freedom’, while the plains carried connotations of ‘docility, pacification and susceptibility to repression’. 


  • When did population densities in Africa match the population densities of Europe c. 1500?
  • What impact did this have?

  • 1975
  • Barrier to state formation - 'great but incomplete drama'
    • State has insufficient resources to dominate entire region.
    • Caused Ibo (Nigeria) to run in a highly decentralised fashion.


What is one argument for the rise of Ethiopia?

High population density. The era of Ethiopian absolutism (1855-1913) saw the rise of a centralised state power.


How are affairs managed in Buganda (20th century)?

  • Situated in the resource-rich and densely populated Great Lakes region, Buganda developed from around the turn of the 19th century into a powerful state, in which extensive exploitation of local resoruces was integrated into control of regional trade, buttressed by the military power of the state. 

  • If Buganda was powerful, it was not necessarily centralised. The Kabaka court set tax levels and oversaw labour on infrastructural projects, but it relied on local clan heads and ssaza chiefs to implement these policies.
    • As with Tokugawa Japan, centre was only as powerful as local coopted arrangements permitted. 


What did Robert Gellately argue about the Gestapo?

  • Numerically small and beyond the ken of most Germans.
  • Tip-offs and denunciations from the public were crucial to its day-to-day operation.
  • The terroristic side of Hitler’s Germany was ‘socially constructed by what was passed along by word of mouth, by what they read of it in the press or heard on the radio’.


What facilitated the dekulakisation of the USSR?

urban volunteers. Not to diminish the power of the regime, but to signpost that “currents of power flow in more complex patterns than a simple, top-down model would allow."


What is an effective demonstrator of the fluidity of power?

“No office better demonstrates the fluidity of power and the difficulty of specifying its locations and quantity in democratic political systems than the Presidency of the United States of America.”


Contrast Bagehot to Wilson on the matter of power in US politics

  • Bagehot, 1866, saw a system of Presidential Government so overwhelming that it threatened to weaken the legislative power.

  • Twenty years later, Woodrow Wilson would recognise it as “congressional government, purely thanks to historical contingency.

    • Bagehot pointed to Lincoln, who used the line in the constitution relating to the Commander in Chief to impose a blockade, raise a volunteer army, expand the regular military and naval forces, sweep aside civil liberties, and impose conscription and issue the two Executive Orders known as the Emancipation Proclamation.

    • At the time of Wilson’s writing, Reconstruction was out of the way and the Legislature was dominant. The President was now seen as the ‘unifying force in our complex system’. Foreign policy power of the President was seen as immense however. Think Arthur Schlesinger - Imperial Presidency.


What are some criticisms of Foucault's position on morality?

  • Jürgen Habermas -> As Foucault critiques normativity as socially constructed and contingent, but relies on an implicit norm, Foucault's thinking is "crypto-normativist", covertly reliant on the very Enlightenment principles he attempts to argue against.
  • Nancy Fraser: "Foucault's critique encompasses traditional moral systems, he denies himself recourse to concepts such as 'freedom' and 'justice', and therefore lacks the ability to generate positive alternatives."


What does Foucault argue about the 17th century body?

  • 17th century - King’s body was not a metaphor in the political system, but literally its physical presence was necessary for the functioning of the monarchy.


What is Foucault's position on Power?

Power is that concrete power which every individual holds, and whose partial or total cession of enables political power or sovereignty to be established. 


What is inherent in the Marxist conception of Power?

  • The Marxist conception of power focuses on economic functionality. This economic functionality is present to the extent that power is conceived primarily in terms of the role it plays in the maintenance simultaneously of the relations of production and of a class domination which of the development and specific forms of the forces of production have rendered possible. On this view then, the historical raision d’etre of political power is to be found in the economy.


Foucault: What does Foucault suggest about the repressive nature of power?

Power represses nature, the instincts, a class, individuals. First stipulated by Hegel, then Freud, later Reich. 


How does Foucault reverse Clauswitz?

Foucault suggests power is war continued by other means. Clauswitz argued that war is politics continued by other means.

  1. Politics is seen as sanctioning and upholding the disequilibrium of force displayed during war.
  2. Conflicts for, of and with power in society with a 'civil peace' are still a form of war.
  3. The end result must only be war: a contest of strength.


What is Reich's hypothesis?

Mechanisms of power are means of repression.


What is Nietzsche's hypothesis on power?

The basis for the relationship of power lies in the hostile engagement of forces.


What did Foucault argue about truth and power?

We are subjected to the production of truth through power and we cannot excerise power except through the production of truth


In Foucault's opinion, what was power constructed around, how was this power substantiated?

  • Around the monarch, from the medieval period - through this the juridical edifice of our society was born. "Right in the West is the King's right"
  • Re-vitalisation of the Roman Law in the 12th century was critical to facilitating this.



According to Foucault, where should we look for power?

  • Power should be located at the extreme points of its exercise, where it is always less legal in character


What does Foucault comment on the location of power?

Power must be analysed as something which circulates, or rather as something which only functions in the form of a chain. It is never localised here or there, never in anybody’s hands, never appropriated as a commodity or piece of wealth


What are individuals in Foucault's formulation of power?

Individuals are the vehicles of power, not its points of application.


Foucault on truth

Truth is a thing of this world: it is produced only by virtue of multiple forms of constraint.  And it induces regular effects of power.  Each society has its regime of truth, its “general politics” of truth: that is, the types of discourse which it accepts and makes function as true; the mechanisms and instances which enable one to distinguish true and false statements, the means by which each is sanctioned; the techniques and procedures accorded value in the acquisition of truth; the status of those who are charged with saying what counts as true’ 


What is 'bio-power'?

Physical bodies are subjugated and made to behave in certain ways, as a microcosm of social control of the wider population, through what he called ‘bio-power’.  Disciplinary and bio-power create a ‘discursive practice’ or a body of knowledge and behaviour that defines what is normal, acceptable, deviant, etc. – but it is a discursive practice that is nonetheless in constant flux.


Herbst: Describe rainfall patterns in Africa

  • +50% has inadequate rainfall
  • 1/3 of the world's arid land is in Africa.


What does Ralph Austen suggest about the nature of transport within the African state?

  • Water travel is limited by the small amount of indented shoreline relative to the size of the continent; alongside the prevalence of shallow waters and rapids. 


Herbst: What are the three issues facing the construction of states in Africa?

  • Cost of expanding the domestic power infrastructure
  • Nature of national boundaries
  • Design of state systems


What does Mattingley suggest about European power exertion during the 14th century?

“In the 14th and 15th centuries, the continental space of Western Europe still impeded any degree of political organisation efficient enough to create a system of continuous diplomatic pressures”


Charles Tilly - What was the driving force of the centralised state in Europe?

“continuous aggressive competition for trade and territory among changing states of unequal size, which made war a driving force in European history”


What did W. Arthur Lewis suggest about the countryside prior to WWII?

 “The countryside had no continuous politics”


Why were notions of property different in African states?

Due to sheer abundance of land, African farmers depended almost completely on rain-fed agriculture and therefore invested little in any particular piece of territory. As a result, few specific pieces of land were that valuable or worth a great price to defend.


What did Wittfogel suggest about the Indian system of land tenure?

Asians were more likely to commit to a piece of land due to sunk costs into irrigation workers in one localised area. 


What was arguably prevalent by 1800 vis-a-vis the nation-state?

It was the only viable model which could champion the new type of warfare, esp. in light of the failings of the mercenary army. 


Herbst: What is the irony of the last four decades of African state development?

  • Rulers did not consolidate their capacity to rule over extended territories. As such, people tended to move inwards towards the centre, further compouding the density issues in the first place.


What does Georges Duby argue in 'Women and Power'?

  • Only when we cease to take for granted that kings, barons, knights, ministeriales) and vavassors who exercised power were men can we comprehend that masculine lordship was part of a natural order in which women were subordinate to the males who alone could fight or coerce.


What is the French word for 'Power'. How precise is it?

  • 'Pouvoir'. It is inherently vague.


How was power and gender mixed in 13th century European society?

  • Normally, sons prevailed over their sisters and inherited the potestas. But if it happened that there were no sons, it was a woman, the eldest of the girls, who inherited.

  • By virtue of this fact, the daughters of the dominus had great value: their right on the inheritance. They were coveted.


What did the clergy describe in the 9th century?

  • In the ninth century the clergy had described the perfect order of the royal household. In the center was the sovereign, but at his side a woman, his own.


Georges Duby: Where does the power of women lie in medieval discourses?

  • The mythical origin of the lineage the representation of a woman, a womb, that is; a matrix whence all the glory, all the potestas, the power of the dynasty has issued.
  • So there is a feminine presence in the foundation myths, symbolic of the role of women in building political power.


Why could women not exercise public power?

By nature, because she was a woman. The woman could not exercise public power. She was incapable of exercising it. For Leopold Genicot, it was a matter of law, the notion of "incapacity" being, indeed, a juridical notion, although an abstract one.


How did women wield power in private?

When the lady had fulfilled her function, when she had given children to the husband, her power, this power she wielded in private, increased at a stroke. Alongside the chamber within the women's space was located that room where the young children were mothered. They were cared for by the servant-women, but under the mother's domination.


Koziol: What was a problem facing rulers vis-a-vis sacred power?

Historians have long recognized the importance of ritual in communicating the sacred attributes of early medieval kingship. For almost as long they have understood that the power of later medieval monarchies to shape public opinion was the power of political theater.


Detail the emergence of the Decretum

Compiled in Bologna, the dominant law school in Europe at that time, the Decretum established itself immediately as the basis of canonical jurisprudence throughout the Western Church. During the following twenty years or so (n4o-6o), its ideas were disseminated to receptive ecclesiastical administrators throughout Europe. The Decretum was used by John of Salisbury, for instance, in the composition of legal letters for archbishop Theobald of Canterbury in the 1150s.


Trouillot/ Sans Souci: What are the four things Sans Souci could refer to?

  • Sans Souci - the French term meaning 'carefree'
  • Sans Souci-Milot - the remains of the palace in Haiti, 'one of the most magnificent edifices of the West Indies'
  • Sans Souci-Potsdam - the palace commissioned by Emperor Frederick the Great several decades before the construction of Sans Souci-Milot
  • Jean Baptiste Sans Souci - the name of a black colonel who fought against the black rebels on behalf of the French. 


What happened during the Haitian revolution?

  • Sans Souci was one of the most effective leaders of the anti-French resistance. Although he struck a temporary truce with Leclerc in 1802, he soon defected to the rebels, and continued to fight the French. Henri Christophe at this time was on the side of the French, but later defected. Rivalries existed between Souci and Christophe, who at a time were enemies. Christophe assassinated Sans Souci after inviting him to a meeting.


What do different racial narratives of the Haitian revolution emphasise?

  • Haitians usually insisting on the courage of their ancestors
  • Foreigners-especially white foreigners-usually emphasising the role of yellow fever in weakening the French troops.


How has record of Sans Souci survived?

That Colonel Sans Souci was not the leader of an impromptu or marginal rebel band but an early leader in the slave uprising and, later, a high-ranking officer of Louverture's army turned dissident has been a constant fact within the published record from the late eighteenth century to our times


What did Nathan Brown conclude about Sans Souci?

Nathan Brown, the physician from New Hampshire who visited Haiti a decade after Christophe's death and failed to note the connection between the Colonel and the palace, wrote: "the name of Sans Souci having been borrowed from Potsdam.” 


What does Hubbert Cole conclude about Sans Souci?

  • For Cole, the coincidence between Sans Souci-Milot and Sans Souci the man was an accident that the king easily bypassed.
  • Cole's silencing thus produces a Christophe who is a remorseless murderer, a tasteless potentate, a bare mimic of Frederick, a man who consumes his victim and appropriates his war name, not through a ritual of reckoning but by gross inadvertence.


How does Ardouin refer to Sans Souci, why?

Ardouin refers to sans souci as a barbarian with French loyalties. This is the clouding of nationalist sentiment. He needs Christophe to be righteous, and Sans Souci to be reduced to a blip in the whiggish teleology towards the realisation of the liberated Haitian republic.


How do most Haitians approach Sans Souci (the person)?

For Ardouin, as for many other Haitians, Sans Souci is an inconvenience inasmuch as the war within the war may prove to be a distraction from the main event of 1791-1804: the successful revolution that their ancestors launched against both slavery and colonialism and that the white world did its best to forget.


How do Barnett and Duvall define 'power'?

Power is the production, in and through social relations, of effects that shape the capacities of actors to determine their circumstances and fate.


What is Carr attributed with?

Carr - proponent of realist interpretation of power. 

Carr is routinely considered to be the individual most responsible for establishing the focal conceptualisation of power and associate that conceptualisation with realism. He was influenced by Mannheim and Marx. Carr perceived power at the surface and below


What is a dominant feature of literature on the subject of international relations?

Realism is so dominant in the literature, that competing theorists have to justify themselves against the realist model. This focus was ‘neglected how power is conceptualised and operates within their theories


What is the neoliberal revision to theories of international relations?

states with convergent interests create international institutions and arrangements that effectively tame (state) power, highlighting processes of social choice and leaving the impression that institutions are the antidote to power. 


What does Gallie conclude on the subject of power?

  • power is an ‘essentially contested’ concept


What did Gruber add to realist conceptions of power?

'go-it-alone power’ - modification of realist-influenced approaches


What is Dahl's classical formulation?

Power is best understood as the ability of A to get B to do what B otherwise would not do.

  • 1. There is intentionality on the part of Actor A. What counts is that A wants B to alter its actions in a particular direction. If B alters its actions under the mistaken impression that A wants it to, then that would not count as power because it was not A's intent that B do so.
  • 2. There must be a conflict of desires, to the extent that B now feels compelled to alter its behavior. A and B want different outcomes, and B loses.
  • 3. A is successful because it has material and ideational resources at its disposal that lead B to alter its action


What have post-structuralists contributed to the narrative on power in international relations?

Power is historically and contingently produced, influencing discourses whihc shape the subjectivities of actors. This impacts historians of gender, race and nation- socially diffuse discourses, and not isolated, direct and proximate actions, produce the subjects of the modern world. 


BD: How does Weber describe compulsory power?

Probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in position to carry out his own will despite resistance, regardless of the basis on which this probability exists.


How have Bachrach and Baratz complicated compulsory power?

Bachrach and Baratz - power still exists even when those who dominate are not conscious of how their actions are producing unintended effects. 


Evidence tyranny of the minority in international relations

Goffman and Bourdieu, and Barnett - Arab states have used symbolic sanctions to alter the behaviour of other Arab staes on a range of issues. Less powerful members of the Security Council are able to use legal norms to constrain the actions of the powerful.


What does Hirschman argue about institutional power?

Famously argued that market forces can create dependent relationships that limit the weaker actor’s choices. 


What is structural power?

Whereas institutional power focuses on differential constraints on action, structural power concerns the determination of social capacities and interests. 


How does Machiavelli conceive of power?

Notion of power as a centaur: it operates overtly to the extent that one actor will manipulate strategic constraints for the purposes of controlling the actions of actors (the beast of compulsory and institutional power), and it operates covertly to the extent that it generates the social powers, values, and interpretations of reality that deeply structure internal control (the man that is structural power).


What do world systems theorists believe?

Structures of production generate particular kinds of states identified as core, semiperiphery, and periphery; the positions in the world-system generate commensurate sets of identities and interests; and those in the subordinate positions adopt (ideologically generated) conceptions of interest that support their own domination and their lesser position in that world-system


What is productive/discursive power?

Productive power concerns discourse, the social processes and the systems of knowledge through which meaning is produced, fixed, lived, experienced and transformed. (Foucault)

- Gender

- Orientalism

- Categories


What impacts can categories have?

Categories infer power - civilised, rogue, European, unstable, Western, democratic


How does Beauvoir use the self/other distinction?

Adapting self/other from Hegel to show women as the second/ secondary/ subordinate sex. The sexual other. Evident in the use of man / mankind - for humanity as a whole.


How does Forst depart from Kant?

Human beings are noumenal beings in the sense that they shape their behavior on the basis of reasons. However, Forst does not endorse the dualism between noumenon and phenomenon. He does not take human beings, insofar as they are rational beings, to somehow be outside the natural world.


How does the German version of power differ from that of the Latin and Spanish?

In German, the noun Macht (‘power’), which is semantically related to the verb machen (‘to make’ or ‘to do’), expresses this basic meaning of the concept of power. In Latin languages, the emphasis is placed on ‘capacity’ to describe ‘power’: in French, pouvoir; in Italian, potere; in Spanish, poder.


Susen: What are the contrasts between bright and dark modernities?

  • Dark modernity: its repressive facets cannot be dissociated from the socio-historical preponderance of instrumental reason.
  • Bright modernity: its emancipatory aspects have been brought about, as well as grasped, by the discursive force of critical reason.


What are Susen's 14 different approaches to power?

Hobbesian, Lockean, Rousseauian, Marxian, Durkheimian, Weberian, Arendtian, Schmittean, Foucauldian, Bourdieusian, Habermasian, Honnethian, Fraserian, and Butlerian approaches 


What is the Durkheimian approach to power?

  • Power should here be understood as the ability to act collectively or on the behalf of the collective. Power comes from the collective. The collective is, however, for Durkheim, holy, all imperative and uncompromising, unapproachable and incorruptible. The holy, "le sacré", is thus always of social origin and can only be explained sociologically.


What does Arendt suggest about power?

  • This capacity to act in concert for a public-political purpose is what Arendt calls power. Power needs to be distinguished from strength, force, and violence (CR, 143–55). Unlike strength, it is not the property of an individual, but of a plurality of actors joining together for some common political purpose. Unlike force, it is not a natural phenomenon but a human creation, the outcome of collective engagement. And unlike violence, it is based not on coercion but on consent and rational persuasion.
  • For Arendt, power is a sui generis phenomenon, since it is a product of action and rests entirely on persuasion. It is a product of action because it arises out of the concerted activities of a plurality of agents, and it rests on persuasion because it consists in the ability to secure the consent of others through unconstrained discussion and debate. Its only limitation is the existence of other people, but this limitation, she notes, “is not accidental, because human power corresponds to the condition of plurality to begin with” 


How did Carl Schmitt support Hitler?

Schmitt quickly obtained an influential position in the legal profession and came to be perceived as the ‘Crown Jurist’ of National Socialism. (Rüthers 1990; Mehring 2009, 304–436) He devoted himself, with undue enthusiasm, to such tasks as the defence of Hitler's extra-judicial killings of political opponents (PB 227–32) and the purging of German jurisprudence of Jewish influence.


What did Schmitt believe about order?

  • In Schmitt's view, there can be no functioning legal order without a sovereign authority.
    • Power justifies its own use; since it creates a lawful environment it is itself to a certain degree outside of the law.
    • In his book “Political Theology” (1922), Schmitt famously declares that the sovereign is he who determines the state of emergency, and thus has the political power to act outside the boundaries of the law in times of crisis.
    • According to Schmitt, the essence of political power is the ability to suspend normal law and assume special powers, just like the ancient dictators did.


Who created symbolic power?

Pierre Bourdieu. Encompasses unconscious modes of cultural/social domination occurring within the everyday social habits maintained over conscious subjects. Similar to Nye's soft power.


What is the perspective of Habermas vis-a-vis power?

Reason and power are fused. Human rationality is derived from successful communication.


What are the principles of nomenal power presented by Susen?

  • Cognitivism - it is imperative to grasp ‘what goes on in the heads of those who are subjected to its power or who have freed themselves from it’.
  • Rationalism - ‘to have and to exercise power means to be able – in different degrees – to influence, use, determine, occupy, or even seal off the space of reasons for others'.
  • Recognitivism - power rests on recognition.
  • Justificationism - need to be motivated by a 'good enough' reason
  • And additional...


What did Weber famously remark about power?

 Max Weber famously remarked that power is sociologically amorphous – in other words, that it is without shape or form.


What did Clarissa Hayward argue against Weber's faces of power?

Power needs to be defaced


What nuance does Forst's account bring to traditional narratives of power?

‘power is not intentionally exercised by persons over others,’ it is ‘more appropriate to speak of ‘influence’.

Removes the deterministic overtone. 


What are Morris's three contexts of power?

  • 1. Who and what makes a difference
    • The early socialists, such as Saint-Simon would write letters to Kings and Emperors to promote their ideas, whereas Marx and Engels looked to mobilizing and organizing working class militants alongside the development of material productive force.

  • 2. What moral context keeps men in power to account?

  • 3. How are pathways to emancipation blocked?


What is the view of power as adopted by psychologists and neuroscientists?

  • ‘Constructivist’ view, according to which vast numbers of physiological and cognitive processes combine to communicate information to and from the brain about the state of the body, and about its location and wellbeing in the physical and social worlds.


Quote from Max Weber, Economy and Society (1922)

Power and Domination

  • "Power is the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance, regardless of the basis on which this probability rests."


Quote Max Weber on Domination

Domination - Herrschaft (or, more aptly, Beherrschung) - is the probability that a command with a given specific content will be obeyed by a given group of persons.

Discipline - is the probability that by virtue of habituation a command will receive prompt and automatic obedience in stereotyped forms, on the part of a given group of persons


Acccording to Weber, 1922, how does the ruling organisation exist?

The Herrschaftsverband exists insofar as its members are subject to domination by virtue of the established order.


According to Weber 1922, how does the head of the household rule?

Without administrative staff.

"A Bedouin chief, who levies contributions from caravans, persons and shipments which pass his stronghold, controls this group of changing individuals, who do not belong to the same organisation 


Foucault on Power in the History of Sexuality, 1976

  • "The word power is apt to lead to a number of misunderstandings - misunderstandings with respect to its nature, its form, and its unity... The analysis, made in terms of power, must not assume that the sovereignty of the state, the form of the law, or the overall unity of a domination are given at the outset; rather, these are only the terminal forms power takes."
  • "The omnipresence of power: not because it has the privilege of consolidating everything under its invicible unity, but because it is produced from one moment to the next, at every point, or rather in every relation from one point to another. Power is everywhere; not because it embraces everything, but because it comes from everywhere. And "Power", insofar as it is permanent, repetitious, inert, and self-reproducing, is simply the overall effect that emerges from all these mobilities."


What concept did Isiah Berlin famously contribute?

  • Models of liberty:
    • Negative Liberty: freedom from (state oppression)
    • Positive Liberty: freedom to (state involvement to deconstruct barriers)


Provide some theories on democracy

  • Gramsci: Ideological hegemony of the ruling classes to maintain veil of ignorance on proletariat.
  • Schumpeter: ‘Democracy means only that the people have the opportunity of accepting or refusing the men who are to rule them’
  • Popper: Philosopher Kings concept is inherently undemocratic and has been used by some individuals to introduce totalitarian regimes such as Ayatolla Khomeini.
  • Rousseau: Democracy is a method of government that allows for government by the 'general will' as people express consent (albeit tacit) through social contract


Plato on Direct Democracy

Ordinary citizens not competent to rule wisely therefore we should have ’Philosopher Kings’ otherwise will result in 'mob rule'


Rousseau on participatory democracy

Participatory democracy should occur on a community level


Supporters of protective democracy

  • LOCKE: Democracy helps to protect ‘Life, liberty and property’
  • JEFFERSON: Protects ‘life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness’
  • MONTESQUIEU: Government should be fragmented through a separation of powers to reduce its power


What is the Pluralist view of democracy, who are its proponents?

  • Based on a system of competitive elections fought by members of different parties and aims to have the widest possible spread of political powers amongst a number of groups.
    • Dahl: Although the politically privileged exerted greater power, no ruling elite is able to dominate - New Haven study - political power is spread widely across citizens
    • Madison: There is a multiplicity of interests and groups in society that can be accommodated within a system of multiple minorities - known as Madisonian democracy.


What is the neo-pluralist view of democracy, who supports it?

Neopluralist - democracy is a corporatist arrangement where insider groups have access to the government. 

  • Gailbraith: business is able to shape public tastes and wants through power of advertising and big business is able to dominate small business.
  • Lindblom: As a major investor in society, big business is likely to have a larger stake in society.


What is Schattschneider's contribution to the power narrative

‘Some issues are organised into politics whilst others are organised out’


What did Herbet Marcuse argue?

  • Advanced industrial societies use pervasive manipulation of needs.


Authority theorists

  • WEBER - Authority is ‘legitimate power’ – Three typologies of authority – Legal-rational, Charismatic, Traditional.
  • LOCKE - Legal rational authority is exercised from below through a social contract where individuals give ‘tacit’ rather than active consent
  • ARENDT - Society is held together with respect of traditional authority as society is bound together by a social identity
  • HOBBES - Authority is needed in order to prevent the state of nature from occurring


Legitimacy theorists

  • CHOMSKY - Mass media distorts political and news broadcasts influencing the way people vote. US imperialism violates democracy and undermines the constition and sovereignty of nations.



  • People should not permit governments to overrule their consciences, and people have a duty to allowing such acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice