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Flashcards in Pad notes for First Two Rotations Deck (121)
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1

How long do you have to wait after C-section before you can get pregnant again and why?

1 year because you have to wait for the womb to heal

2

How to manage a C-section scar

Massage it after shower to avoid fibrosis of the scar and it being pulled inwards - to get a thin and white scar

3

Insertion of IUD after birth

Can't insert IUD before 3 months after birth because womb is not back to its normal size and it will be expulsed

4

Risk factors for late miscarriage x3

Scars on uterus
Previous late miscarriages
Fibroma or mass in uterus

5

Where is affected with hydra-adenitis?

Groin, armpits, between buttocks, labia, below breasts, on buttocks

6

What happens with hydra-adenitis?

Abscesses, swelling, pain and boils

7

Treatment of hydra-adenitis?

Infliximab treatment, 4-weekly infusions

8

What vitamin are all babies given and why?

All babies are given vitamin K because they don't have vitamin K stores
Therefore give any child with prolonged clotting extra vitamin K, check 6 hours later and liver should have had time to synthesise vitamin K

9

What sort of milk do children with chronic liver disease get?

Milk with MCT's (medium chain triglycerides) in it because they are water soluble therefore more easily absorbable

10

What is galactosemia?

Rare genetic disorder that affects an individuals ability to metabolise galactose leading to toxic levels of galactose-1-phosphate

11

Symptoms of galactosemia?

Galactosemia leads to hepatomegaly, cirrhosis, renal failure, cataracts, vomiting, seizure, hypoglycaemia, lethargy, brain damage and ovarian failure

12

Management of galactosemia

Stop breast milk to cure

13

Why is EBV bad in immunosuppressed patients and what happens pathologically?

Because T cells are low when immunosuppressed therefore get EBV B cells and these colonially expand because there are no T cells stopping them - therefore get lymphadenopathy from B cell proliferation

14

What is Sandifer syndrome?

Syndrome of gastro-oesophageal reflux and neurological symptoms

15

Symptoms of Sandifer syndrome?

Spasmodic torticolis and dystonia and gastro symptoms

16

Treatment of Sandifer syndrome

Treatment of associated underlying disease eg. GORD or hiatus hernia

17

What do you worry about with seizures in a child

Neurological problem - eg. neuro migrational disorder etc. always do MRI
Infection - eg.meningitis
Cardiac - look for cardiac SVT - floppy, sweaty and pale
Metabolic - check glucose, lactate, ammonia, amino acids, u&e's, cardinitine

18

What do you query if child is not moving arm in first few months

Surgical trauma eg. clavicle fracture most common
Or NAI

19

When are febrile convulsions seen?

5/6 months to 5/6 years

20

Characteristics for febrile convulsions x5

Temperature just needs to be high
Need to normalise after seizure
Duration 1 then complex febrile seizures)

21

Risk of having a second febrile seizure if you have a first

30% risk of another seizure

22

How do you do neonatal MRI

Feed and wrap or General Anaesthesia

23

What do you give for status epilepticus in children

Diazepam is not given
Lorazepam if access or rectal

24

Another name for metopic synostosis and what is it?

Trigonocephaly - premature fusing of the metopic suture causing a triangular shape to the forehead

25

What does valproate to do lamotrigine?

Valproate increases lamotrigine half-life
All enzyme inducers do this to lamotrigine

26

What effect can topiramate have on kidney

(Treatment for tonic clonic)
It can cause renal stones

27

What type of pain do you get with Gall Stones?

Colicky (coming and going) RUQ pain and jaundice

28

What is Gilberts syndrome

GAL 1 enzyme dysfunction - high bilirubin in blood - can cause jaundice

29

What is given after splenectomy

Lifelong penicillin because risk of being immunocompromised and risk of pneumococcus infection

30

Type of wheeze in foreign body obstruction

Unilateral, sudden onset and also red in the face