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Flashcards in Paediatrics Deck (19):

Give 3 signs of respiratory distress in a child

1. Tachypnoea, RR 40-60
2. Subcostal and intercostal recession
3. Stridor
4. Tracheal tug
5. Cyanosis


Describe the epidemiology of ADHD

5% school aged children
M:F = 4:1


Describe the aetiology of ADHD

Genetic and environmental
Neuroanatomical and neurochemical factors
CNS insults, e.g. FAS or premature


What are the 3 core behaviours of ADHD?

1. Hyperactivity
2. Inattention
3. Impulsivity


ADHD core behaviours: give 3 signs of hyperactivity

1. Fidgety
2. Talkative
3. Noisy
4. Can't remain seated


ADHD core behaviours: give 3 signs of impulsivity

1. Blurts out answers
2. Interrupts
3. Difficulty waiting turns
4. When older, pregnancy and drug abuse


ADHD core behaviours: give 3 signs of inattention

1. Easily distracted
2. Not listening
3. Mind wandering
4. Struggling at school
5. Forgetful
6. Organisational problems


What is the diagnostic criteria for ADHD?

6/9 inattentive symptoms and 6/9 hyeractivity/impulsivity.

The symptoms are present before 12 years and occur in more than one place and in a primary setting. There is clear evidence that symptoms interfere with social/academic function


What tools can be used in order to diagnose ADHD?

1. Clinical interview - any RFs for ADHD?
2. ADHD nurse classroom observation
3. Questionnaires (SNAP)
4. Quantitative behavioural (QB) analysis


Describe the treatment for ADHD

1. Education
2. Parenting programmes and school support
3. Medications e.g. methylphenidate


Why is it important to do a cardiac assessment before prescribing medications to help treat a child with ADHD?

Some ADHD medications can affect HR and BP


Describe the epidemiology of AuSD

1% prevalence
Boys > girls


Give 4 signs of AuSD

1. Communication problems
2. Social interaction difficulties
3. Social imagination difficulties
4. Sensory issues


AuSD signs: what communication problems might a child show?

1. Challenges with non-verbal communication
2. Lack of desire to communicate
3. Tendency to communicate needs only
4. Very literal, no understanding of jokes


AuSD signs: what social interaction difficulties may a child show?

1. Overly friendly/shy
2. Struggles to understand social roles
3. No desire to interact
4. Touches inappropriately, plays alone, poor eye contact, finds it hard to take turns


AuSD signs: what social imagination problems might a child show?

1. Struggles with change
2. Obsessions/rituals
3. Repetitive with play
4. Unable to play/write imaginatively


Describe the treatment for AuSD

1. Education and games to encourage social communication
2. Visual aids and timetables
3. Parenting workshops and school liaison

There are no medications available for AuSD


What are the liver dependent clotting factors?

2, 7, 9, 10


Give 2 coagulopathies

1. Von Willebrand disease
2. Haemophilia