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Flashcards in pancreas pathophys Deck (28):
1

Which pancreatic enzymes are active when secreted

amylase and lipase

2

What causes acute pancreatitis

when pancreatic enzymes are inappropriately and prematurely activated resulting in autolysis of the gland. This may result in severe inflammation and/or necrosis of pancreatic tissue. Caused when pancreatic duct is obstructed resulting in stagnation of pancreas enzymes in duct lumen and activation of enzymes

3

acute pancreatitis symptoms

severe pain in the upper abdomen, sometimes radiating to the back, and nausea/vomiting. Low-grade fevers may accompany this. The pain is usually intolerable

4

Consequence of acute pancreatitis

Lipase released from dying acinar cells breaks down fat, liberating free fatty acids which precipitate with calcium and form insoluble soaps. In severe pancreatitis, there may be frank coagulation necrosis of the gland and/or hemorrhage into the retroperitoneum

5

acute pancreatitis histology

necrosis of pancreatic tissue is associated with intense infiltrates of neutrophils and apoptosis of epithelial cells

6

acute pancreatitis diagnosis

history/PE, serum levels of amylase and lipase which are elevated b/c enzymes leak out of inflammed pancreas into blood. Ultrasound, CT

7

Acute pancreatitis treatment

NPO, IV pain meds, time (self limited). If gallstones, cholecystectomy to remove gallbladder or ERCP to extract stones.

8

alcohol induced acute pancreatitis pathogenesis

damage of acinar cell > release of enzymes > lipase causes fat necrosis, proteases cause vascular damage

9

Stone induced acute pancreatitis pathogenesis

obstruction > secretagogue effect > leakage of enzymes through injured ductule > lipase causes fat necrosis and proteases cause vascular destruction

10

complications of acute pancreatitis

ileus (paralysis of gut), intra-abd hemorrhage, pseudocyst formation. Pancreatic necrosis, bowel obstruction, shock, respiratory or renal failure, death

11

what is a pancreatic pseudocyst

•Collection of pancreatic fluid, debris surrounded by wall of granulation tissue - lacks epithelial lining. Results from ductal disruption, necrosis or both. Most resolve with time.

12

What respiratory disease is associated with pancreatic necrosis

Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Delayed onset, leads to respiratory failure. Fully reversible, treatment is support

13

Causes of chronic pancreatitis

repeated acute pancreatitis, usually from chronic alcohol use.

14

clues to gallstone pancreatitis

elevated liver enzymes, dilated bile duct

15

Chronic pancreatitis macro and microscopic features

macro: hard fibrous tissue, atrophy of gland, pancreatic juice is viscous with calcifications, possible pseudocysts, ductal strictures Micro: boad bands of scar tissue, lymphocytes and/or plasma cells, strictures of ducts, calcified pancreatic duct stones

16

Chronic pancreatitis symptoms

chronic pain (epigastric radiates to back), malabsorption resulting in steatorrhea, permanent loss of pancreatic function (hypo or hyperglycemia)

17

Which features of chornic pancreatitis cause pain, exocrine failure, nausea, endocrine failure

Ductal strictures/stones cause pain and exocrine failure. Pancreatic pseudocysts cause pain, nausea/vomiting (depending on what’s compressed). Acinar destruction causes exocrine failure. Diabetes causes endocrine failure (late)

18

Other causes of chronic pancreatitis

Cystic fibrosis, hereditary pancreatitis, hyperlipidemia

19

pancreatic insufficiency symptoms and nutrients involved

weight loss (fat), steatorrhea (fat), bleeding problems (Vit K), anemia (Vit B12), weakness/edema (protein), watery diarrhea (CHO, protein)

20

Mechanisms of steatorrhea

decreased lipase and colipase in duodenum. Decreased duodenal pH leads to inactivation of pancreas enzymes and bile acid precipitation

21

Chronic pancreatitis diagnosis

history, PE, plain X ray shows pancreatic calcifications, CT shows dilated duct, atrophy, calcifications and pseudocysts. Secretin test, ERCP, endoscopic US are all more accurate

22

What is secretin test

secretin given IV- [HCO3] increase of less than 80 mEq/l suggests pancreatic obstruction or failure

23

Chronic pancreatitis treatment

ethanol avoidance, pancreas enzyme replacement for steatorrhea, treat duct obstruction with dilation stent or stone removal, celiac nerve block for pain, surgery, pancreatectomy with islet cell transplant in young patients

24

Pancreatic cancer presentation

Jaundice, dark urine, pruritus - Bile duct obstruction (tumors in head). Late Abdominal or back pain - Capsular distension or nerve invasion. Weight loss. Nausea/vomiting (late) – Duodenal or gastric obstruction. Hormonal excess (neuroendocrine) -insulin, glucagon, gastrin, VIP

25

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor

slow growing, good prognosis. Islet cell origin. Symptoms of hormonal excess. Octreotide scan used for small NETs

26

Autoimmune pancreatitis

Diffuse or focal enlargement of pancreatic parenchyma. Infiltration by IgG-4 + plasma cells and lymphocytes. Males, typically ages 40-70

27

Autoimmune pancreatitis symptoms

abdominal pain, jaundice, weight loss, (rarely) pancreatitis

28

Autoimmune pancreatitis diagnosis and treatment

•Diagnosis: CT/MRI, serum IgG-4, EUS, ERCP, and occasionally FNA/biopsy. Treatment: PO corticosteroids x 6 weeks, biliary stenting for symptom relief