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Flashcards in Pancreatic disorders Deck (47):
1

The pancreas is an endocrine gland producing: 3

1. Insulin

2. Glucagon

3. somatostatin

2

Also functions as an exocrine gland secreting what?

 

It secretes approximately ____ liters of enzyme-rich fluid every day for the digestion of fats, starch, and protein.

digestive enzymes via a duct.

 

1.5

3

1. Secretin- released from the duodenal mucosa in response to what?

2. What does it stimulates? 2

1. the presence of acid in the duodenum.

2. stimulates the release of

-bicarbonate

-water.

4

1. Cholecystokinin (CCK)- released from SI endocrine cells in response to what?

2. acts directly and through vagal afferents to stimulate pancreatic acinar cells to release what?

1. the entry of fats and proteins into the proximal intestine.

 

2. digestive proenzymes.

5

Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas. Etiologies? 5

1. Mechanical

2. Toxic

3. Trauma

4. Metabolic

5. Infection

6

Acute Pancreatitis:

1. Gallstones are more common in who?

2. Alcohol are more common in who?

1. Gallstones more common cause in women

2. Alcohol more common cause in men

7

If 2nd attack and not one of main 2 causes then look for the less common causes such as? 6

1. hypercalcemia

2. hyperlipidemias

3. biliary sludge

4. drugs

5. cancer

6. missed stone in duct,

8

Acute onset clinical manifestations? 5

What can this progress to? 2

1. persistent, severe epigastric pain

2. or RUQ pain may be steady or colicky

3. N/ V

4. 50% experience band like radiation of pain to back;

5. some may get relief w/ bending forward or sitting up.

 

 

1. Dyspnea

2. Shock/Coma

9

Acute pancreatitis 5-10% of patients may have painless disease and have what?

Unexplained hypotension

10

Physical exam of acute pancreatitis? 5

1. Fever, tachycardia, (hypotension if severe)

2. Epigastric/RUQ tenderness

3. Shallow respirations- pain with deep breaths

4. Possible dyspnea if pleural effusion

5. Epigastric mass if pseudocyst or tumor.

 

 

In 3% of pts, ecchymotic discoloration may be observed in the periumbilical region (Cullen’s sign) or along the flank (Grey-Turner's sign).

11

1. ecchymotic discoloration may be observed in the periumbilical region. What sign is this?

 

2. Along the flank. What sign is this?

1. Cullen's sign

2. Grey-Turner's sign

12

Lab Tests for Acute Pancreatitis?

3

1. Serum Amylase

2. Serum Lipase

3. C reactive protein

13

Serum amylase

1. Rises how?

2. Elevated for how many days?

Serum Lipase

1. Describe sensitivity and specificity compare to amylase

2. Describe its elevation and how long it lasts?

3. If ____x nl think pancreatitis.

Serum amylase:

1. rises quickly (6 to 12 hrs)

2. elevated for 3-5 days

 

Serum lipase:

1. sensitivity 82-100%, more specific than amylase

2. elevations occur earlier and last longer

3. If 3-4x nl think pancreatitis.

14

C reactive protein levels

1. Levels at what and how long after presentation can predict a more severe course?

 

2. So what do we use this to differentiate?

C-reactive protein:

1. levels above 150 mg/dL at 48 hrs after pt presents can predict more severe course.

2. Used to differentiate severe from mild disease

 

15

Imaging for Pancreatitis?

5

Abdominal plain film

CXR

US

CT scan

MRI

16

1. What does abdominal plain film help us with on pancreatitis? 2

2. What percent of pts with pancreatitis have abnormal findings on CXR?

3. What are these? 3

1. 

-helps to exclude other causes of abdominal pain

-may have localized ileus 2ndry to inflammation

2. CXR: 1/3 of pts w/ pancreatitis have abnormal findings:

3.

-Elevation of hemidiaphragm

-Pleural effusions            

-Pulmonary infiltrates

17

What is the most important test for diagnosis acute pancreatitis & intraabdominal complications and assessment of severity?

CT scan

18

Pancreatitis

1. What would the US show?

 

19

MRI for pancreatitis

1. Describe its sensitivty compared to CT?

2. Advantages? 3

1. Higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of early acute pancreatitis than CT scan.

2.

-Lack of nephrotoxicity

-Ability of MRI to better detect fluid collections, necrosis, hemorrhage and pseudocyst

-MRCP better shows the pancreatic and bile ducts

20

What does this CT show?

pancreatitis

21

Treatment of pancreatitis?

7

1. Admit to hospital with acute pancreatitis

2. NPO

3. IV hydration with crystalloids to keep UO>30ml/hr (lactated ringers except in hypercalcemia)

4. Pain control (morphine, fentanyl, ketorolac)

5. Ondansetron (zofran), or Promethazine (Phenergan) prn nausea

6. +/- antibiotics,

7. +/- surgery (cholecystectomy, necrosectomy- severe dz)

 

22

What labs would we do for Pancreatitis?

6

Labs:

1. CBC,

2. lipase,

3. amylase,

4. CMP,

5. bilirubin,

6. C-reactive protein in 48 hrs,

23

Severe pancreatitis

1. Complications with what can develop? 4

2. Treatment? 3

1. Complications w/

-pulmonary,

-renal,

-circulatory

-hepatobiliary dysfx can occur

 

2.

-ICU monitoring and supplemental O2

-Prevent infection w/ broad spectrum antibiotics

-Nutrition preferably enteral- Tube feeding

24

Risk Factors for Disease Severity

5

1. Age > 55 yrs

2. Obesity—BMI > 30 kg/m2

3. Organ failure at admission

4. Pleural effusion or pulmonary infiltrate

5. Elevated C-reactive protein

25

What is Chronic Pancreatitis?

 

Progressive inflammatory changes result in permanent structural damage to the pancreas, leading to impairment of exocrine & endocrine function

26

Etiologies of chronic pancreatitis?

5

1. Alcohol abuse (75%)

2. Genetic: cystic fibrosis, hereditary pancreatitis

3. Ductal obstruction: trauma, pseudocysts, stones, tumors

4. Systemic: SLE, hypertriglyceridemia

5. idiopathic

27

Acute vs. Chronic

1. Acute is usually _________?

2. Reccurrent acute leads to what?

3. Symtpoms of chronic?

4. Serum Amylase and Lipase in Chronic?

1. Acute is usually nonprogressive

2. Recurrent episodes of acute lead to chronic over time

 

3. Chronic may be asymptomatic over long periods of time

4. Serum amylase and lipase concentrations tend to be normal in chronic

 

28

1. Cardinal feature of Chronic pancreatitis?

2. Other clinical manifestations of chronic pancreatitis? 3

1. Chronic abdominal pain—cardinal feature although 20% may have little to no pain

2. 

-Pancreatic insufficiency

-Fat malabsorption

-Pancreatic diabetes

29

Describe why the following happen:

1. Pancreatic insufficiency?

2. Fat malabsorption?

3. Pancreatic diabetes?

1. Pancreatic insufficiency—exocrine dysfunction cannot digest complex foods or absorb digestive breakdown products, wt. loss: 90% of pancreatic function has to be lost for this to occur

2. Fat malabsorption (steatorrhea)--lipolytic activity decreases faster then proteolysis: malabsorption of fat sol-uble vitamins (A, D, E, K)

3. Pancreatic diabetes —DM late in course of disease, seen pts w/ calcifying disease.

30

Chronic Pancreatitis

1. Why are amylase and lipase usually normal?

2. What is the diagnostic gold standard test?

3. What test is performed at specialized centers?

1. amylase and lipase usually normal because pancreas fibrotic resulting in decreased abundance of these enzymes within the pancreas

2. Steatorrhea: 72-hour quantitative fecal fat determination is the gold standard, excretion > 7g fat day; pts w/ steatorrhea usually > 10g q day

 

3. Direct pancreatic function tests: performed via specialized centers

31

 Chronic Pancreatitis Imaging?

3

1. Calcifications on plain films

2. CT/MRI/US

3. ERCP

 

32

Chronic Pancreatitis

1. CT/MRI/US may show what? 3

2. ERCP can reveal what?

1. CT/MRI/US

may show

-ductal dilatation,

-enlargement of pancreas,

-pseudocysts

2. ERCP

-can reveal changes in the ducts

 

33

What does this CT show?

3

1. Inflammatory mass at head of pancreas

2. Calcifications

3. Low attenuation areas of necrosis

34

Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis

4

1. Establish Dx

2. Pain management and control N/V

3. Diet

4. Surgery

35

Whats on our differential for chronic pancreatitis?

4

1. PUD,

2. biliary obstruction,

3. pancreatic cancer,

4. pancreatic duct strictures or stones

36

How would we manage pain management and control N/V?

3

1. NSAIDs,  

2. low dose amitriptyline,

3. opiates

37

Diet changes for chronic pancreatitis?

4

1. cessation of alcohol and smoking;

2. small low fat meals

3. with pancreatic enzyme supplements and

4. acid suppression (H2 blockers or PPIs) to reduce inactivation of enzymes from gastric acid

38

1. Who is surgery for in pts with pancreatitis?

2. What kinds? 3

1. for those who fail medical therapy, for pain relief—

2.

-decompression of main pancreatic duct/psuedocyst,

-resection of part of the pancreas,

-denervation procedures

39

1. Why does pancreatic cancer have a poor diagnosis?

2. Risk factors? 4

3. 85% of all pancreatic cancers are what?

1. Poor prognosis because of late presentation

2. Risk factors:

-chronic pancreatitis

-smoking

-obesity

-male gender

3. Ductal adenocarcinoma

85% of all pancreatic cancers

40

Clinical features of pancreatic cancer? 3

(most common?***)

1. +/- pain,

2. weight loss,

3. jaundice.

Painless jaundice w/  wt. loss***

41

Tumors in body or tail present w/ what? 2

Tumors of the head present w/ what? 3

1. Pain and weight loss

2. weight loss, steatorrhea, jaundice

42

PE of pancreatic cancer will show what?

3

1. abdominal mass/ascites 20%  pts,

2. L supraclavicular node (Virchow's node)

3. palpable periumbilical mass (Sister Mary Joseph’s node)

43

Workup for chronic pancreatitis:

1. Imaging? What would it show? 3

2. Labs? What would they show? 3

3. Serum tumor marker? 1

1. Imaging: US/CT shows pancreatic mass, dilated bile ducts, liver mets

 

Labs: LFT’s show elevated bilirubin, alk phos, aminotransferases normal or slightly elevated

 

Serum tumor maker:

CA 19-9 closely related to tumor size

44

1. CA 19-9 can be elevated also in who?

2. Serial monitoring can assess what?

1. Can be elevated  in pts w/ benign pancreaticobiliary disorders

2. Serial monitoring can assess the response to treatment

 

45

Diagnosis of Pancreatic cancer?

FNA, via ERCP, or during surgery

46

Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

5

1. surgical resection is preferred tx****

2. +/- radiation therapy or  chemotherapy

3. Usually unresectable if involves vascular structures

4. endoscopic stent insertion or palliative surgery

5. Pain control and pancreatic enzyme replacement

47

1. Treatment of stage I and II pancreatic cancer? and Prognosis?

2. Treatment for stage III? and prognoiss?

3. Stage IV prognosis?

1. Resectable disease (stage I, II): 15-20% of pts have resectable disease at time of dx, median survival rate 15-20 mos, 5-year survival rate is 20%.

2. Unresectable locally advanced (stage III): 30% present in stage III, chemotherapy with or w/o radiation gives modest improvement in survival and palliation.

3. Mets (stage IV): 50% have limited survival of 3-6 months.