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Flashcards in GI assessment Deck (59)
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1

RBCs—anemia
from GI disease could be?
2

1. Multifactorial—depends on etiology of liver disease
2. Liver disease due to alcoholism:

2

Liver disease due to alcoholism?
3

1. GI blood loss
2. Nutritional deficiency—B12 and folate (macrocystic anemia)
3. Alcohol as a direct toxin

3

WBCs—neutropenia

1. Why does this happen?
2.

1. Sequestering of WBCs in the spleen because of portal hypertension
2. Results in the patient being ?

4

(Etiology of portal HTN: ?

cirrhosis of the liver)

5

Platelets—thrombocytopenia
why does this happen?

Sequestering in the spleen secondary to portal hypertension

6

Liver Function Tests
7

1. ALT
2. AST
3. Alkaline Phosphatase
4. GGT
5. 5’-Nucleotidase
6. Bilirubin
7. Ammonia

7

Applications of LFTs?
4

1. Provide a noninvasive method to screen for the presence of liver disease

2. Used to measure the efficacy of treatments for liver disease

3. Used to monitor progression of liver disease

4. Can reflect the severity of liver disease, particularly in patients who have cirrhosis

8

Assess liver function not destruction or failure? 2

Albumin and PT

9

Cons of LFTs
3

1. Most do not accurately reflect how well the liver is functioning

2. Abnormal values CAN be caused by diseases unrelated to the liver

3. The tests may be normal in patient’s who have advanced liver disease

10

Tests that reflect injury to hepatocytes?
(whats normal?)
2

Serum aminotransferases:
1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)*
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
(Normal

11

1. ALT and AST is normally located where?
2. When are they released intot he blood stream?

1. Enzymes are normally intracellular:
2. Released into the blood stream when hepatocytes are injured
---Damage or destruction of tissues or changes in cell membrane permeability permit leakage

12

AST is also produced in what type of cells?
7

1. cardiac muscle,
2. skeletal muslce,
3. kidneys
4. the brain
5. pancreas
6. lungs and
7. erythrocytes

13

Extent of ____________ correlates poorly w/ the rise of aminotransferases?

Highest elevations seen in what diseases? 3

liver necrosis

1. viral hepatitis,
2. ischemic hepatitis,
3. toxicity

14

Rapid decline in aminotransferases usually a sign of ________ but may reflect what?

1. recovery

2. massive destruction of viable hepatocytes signaling acute liver failure

15

1. What does alkaline phosphatase refer to?

2. Found where?

3. Sources? 3

4. In bone it is involved in what?

5. MAJOR value of elevated serum alkaline phosphatase in diagnosis of liver disease is recognition of what?

1. Refers to a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of organic phosphate esters at an alkaline pH

2. Found in many areas of the body it’s precise function is not known

3. Sources:
-liver,
-bone, &
-sometimes the intestinal tract

4. In bone the enzyme is involved in calcification

5. MAJOR value of elevated serum alkaline phosphatase in diagnosis of liver disease is recognition of cholestatic disease!

16

5`-nucleotidase:
1. Found where? 6
2. In the liver where is it located?
3. An increase in a non-pregnant patient with an increase in AP suggests the increase in AP is from where?
4. Elevations in 5’-nucleotidase are seen in the same types of ________________ associated w/ an increase in AP

HOWEVER sometimes the two are discordant and cannot be totally reliable

1. Found in the
-liver,
-intestine,
-brain,
-heart,
-blood vessels, &
-endocrine pancreas

2. In the liver subcellular location in hepatocytes

3. liver

4. hepatobiliary disease

17

Gamma-glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT):
1. PLays an important role in what?
2. Elevated serum activity is found in diseases of the what? 3
3. Major clinical value is for what?
4. In what else do we see this in?

1. Plays a role in amino acid transport

2. Elevated serum activity is found in diseases of the
-liver,
-biliary tract
-pancreas corresponding to increases in AP

3. Major clinical value is for conferring organ specificity to an elevated AP level

4. Also see early peaks in acute liver toxicity such as after an alcohol binge

18

1. Bilirubin the 80% the product of what?
2. Other 20% of the time?

1. Bilirubin is the product of heme metabolism (80%)

2. The other 20% is from other heme proteins

19

Elevated bilirubin is due to:
4

1. Overproduction of bilirubin

2. Impaired uptake of bilirubin

3. Impaired conjugation or excretion of bilirubin

4. Backward leaking from damaged hepatocytes or bile ducts

20

Conjugated bilirubin:
1. Relates only to what kind of disease?
2. What can it not differentiate though?

1. relates to only hepatobiliary disease
2. It does not differentiate it from obstructive vs. hepatocellular damage

21

Why does unconjugated bilirubin not get filtered by the kidneys?

adheres tightly to albumin

22

Increased levels of unconjugated bilirubin levels are caused by what 2? (not caused by?)

1. from increased production
2. or decreased excretion

usually not from hepatobiliary disease

23

UA—urobilinogen: is positive when direct bilirubin is what?

excreted via the kidneys

24

See slide 15

see slide 15

25

See slide 16

See slide 16

26

Ammonia
1. What is Hepatic encephalopathy?
2. Increased concentrations of what play a role in this?
3. What is one part of treatment because of this?

1. Reversible impairment of neuropsychiatric function associated w/ impaired hepatic function
2. Increased ammonia concentrations play a role
3. One part of treatment is to decrease the ammonia levels

27

Cycle of increased ammonia:
3 steps of normal ammonia clearance?

4 What happens when there is advanced liver failure?

1. Produced by the catabolism of colonic bacteria in the GI tract

2. Enters the circulation via the portal vein

3. The intact liver clears the ammonia from the circulation

4. When there is advanced liver disease the liver cannot clear the ammonia

28

Obtaining an ammonia level:
1. Whats the most accurate way?
2. Many factors can result in inaccurate results? 3

3. Following the ammonia level is necessary why?

1. Drawing an arterial ammonia level is the most accurate method to determine a level

2. Many factors can result in inaccurate results:
-Fist clenching
-Use of a tourniquet
-Whether the sample was put on ice or not

3. to know if treatment aimed at helping the liver is successful in lowering the ammonia level

29

Biosynthetic Function
what two tests?

Albumin
PT

30

1. Liver is the major site where what is synthesized?
2. What is the most important serum plasma protein?

3. This serum level reflects what? 3

4. Hypoalbuminemia can reflect other disorders such as?
3

1. Liver is the major site where serum proteins are synthesized

2. Albumin is the most important serum plasma protein

3. The serum level reflects the:
-Rate of synthesis
-Rate of degradation
-Volume of distribution

4. Hypoalbuminemia can reflect other disorders:
-Systemic inflammation
-Malnutrition
-When present with chronic liver disease it reflects the severity of the liver disease