Parasites and Protozoa and C diff Pharm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Parasites and Protozoa and C diff Pharm Deck (36):
1

Nematodes- drugs

-Albendazole
-Mebendazole

2

Cestodes- drugs

-Albendazole
-Mebendazole
-Praziquantel

3

Trematodes- drugs

-Praziquantel

4

soil-transmitted helminths

-ascaris, hookworm, trichuris
-albendazole or mebendazole- Benzimidazoles!!

5

Benzimidazoles- moa

bind to parasite B-tubulin- disrupt microtubule polymerization (stop mt dep processes- attachment, glucose-transport)

6

Mebendazole- bioavailability, distribution

-poor absorption!! low systemic exposure!!
-stays in intestinal tract!!

7

Albendazole- bioavailability, distribution

-modest absorption, efficient metabolism!!!- low systemic exposure
-hepatic metabolites!- so good for tissue dwelling helminths, hydatid cysts!!!

8

Thiabendazole

-cutaneous use only!! for larval migrans (systemic toxicity)

9

Mebendazole- treats what?

-enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
-ascaris lumbricoides
-Trichuris trichiura (3 day course)

10

Albendazole- treats

-Necator a, Ancylostoma d (hookworm)
-Ascaris lumbricoides
-Toxocara (larval migrans)

11

Enterobius vermicularis (Pinworm)- drug

-Mebendazole

12

Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale (Hookworm)- drug

-Albendazole

13

Ascaris lumbricoides- drug

-Albendazole
-Mebendazole

14

Toxocara (Larval migrans)- drug

-Albendazole

15

Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)- drug

-Mebendazole- *3 day course
-Albendazole

16

Albendazole and mebendazole- contraindications

pregnancy- teratogenic!!!

17

alternative nematode therapy

-pyrantel!!- hookworm, pinworm, roundworm (but not trichuris trichiura)

18

pyrantel- moa

-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent
-causes act of N-AChR- spastic paralysis!!

19

worm burden- heavy Ascaris infections- use what?

pyrantel!! with albendazole

20

can be used in pregnant pts?

-pyrantel

21

Ivermectin- used for?

-intestinal strongyloidiasis
-onchocerciasis- river blindness!!!
-lymphatic filariasis- Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi

22

Ivermectin- moa

-act glutamate-gated Cl channels- hyperpolarization- paralysis
-cannot cross BBB in mammals
-can act on GABA-gated Cl channels in humans- so contraindicated if BBB is disrupted!!

23

Diethylcarbamazine- used for?

-lymphatic filariasis
-loasis

24

Cestodes (tapeworms)- infections

-Cysticercosis
-Echinococcosis
-Taeniasis- pork, beef
-Diphyllobrothriasis- fish

25

drug for all adult form tapeworm infections

Praziquantel!!
-taenia solium- pork
-taenia saginata- beef
-diphyllobothrium latum- fish

26

drug for larval forms of tapeworm infections

Albendazole!!
-cysticercosis
-Echinococcus granulosus (Cystic hydatid dz)

27

Cysticercosis (taenia solium tapeworm)- neuro sx's!!!- drug?

-Albendazole!!

28

cystic hydatid dz (Echinococcus granulosus)- drug?

-Albendazole!!

29

Schistosomiasis- drug?

-Praziquantel!!

30

Praziquantel- moa

-interfere with Ca homeostasis and causes flaccid paralysis in adult flukes
-causes ag's within the parasite to be exposed to the action of host ab's!!!

31

Metronidazole- treats what?

-Entamoeba histolytica (amebiasis)
-Giardia lamblia
(anaerobic!!- PFOR complex activates the metronidazole!)

32

treats giardiasis

-Tinidazole (resistance to metronidazole)

33

Metronidazole- AE's

-metallic taste
-disulfiram-like rxn (sx's assoc w/ alcohol intake)

34

E histolytica (amebiasis)- drug

-metronidazole!
-if sx- followed by a luminal amebicide to eliminate intraluminal cysts

35

colonization of intestine with E histolytica- drug?

-Paromomicin

36

C difficile- treatment?

-Metronidazole- initial choice
-Vancomycin (PO)- 1st choice for recurrence
-Fidaxomicin- ICU acquired