Flashcards in Parasitology Deck (20):
Protozoa GI infection
giardia lamblia, E. histolytica, cyrptosporidium
What disease is caused by giardia infection? Transmission? treatment?
giardiasis: bloating, flatulance, foul-smelling fatty diarrhea. often seen in campers and hikers.
transmitted by cysts in water
What disease is caused by E. histolytica? transmission? treatment?
amebiasis: bloody diarrhea, liver abscesses (anchovy paste), RUQ pain with flash shaped ulcer if submucosal abscesses of colon rupture.
transmitted by cysts in water. tx: metronidazole. iodoquinol for asymptomatic cyst passers
Dx of Giardia
trophozoites or cysts in stool
Dx of E. histolytica
serology and/or trophozoites with RBCs in the cytopmaslm or cysts with up to 4 nuclei in the stool
What disease is caused by cryptosporidium? transmission? treatment?
severe diarrhea in AIDS. mild disease in immunocompetent. transmitted by oocysts in water. tx: prevention, nitazoxanide in immunocompetent
What are the CNS protozoa parasites?
toxoplasma gondii, naegleria fowleri, trypansoma brucei
Toxoplasma gondii: diseases
brain abscesses in HIV (ring enhancing). or, congenital infection: chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications
transmission, dx, and tx of toxoplasma
cysts in meat or oocytes in cat feces. crosses placenta.
dx: serology or biopsy showing tachyzoite.
Tx: Sulfadiazine (folate inhibitor) with pyrimethamine
Naegleria fowleri: disease
rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis
Naegleria fowleri: transmission, diagonsis, and treatment
swimming in freshwater lakes. enters via cribiform plate
Dx: amoebas in spinal fluid
Tx: very few survivors, but try amphotericin B
Trypanosoma brucei disease
African sleeping sickness. casues relapsing/remitting fever d/t antigenic variation, LAD, somnolence, coma
Transmission of brucei disease
dx: blood smear
tx: Suramin for blood-borne disease or melarsoprol for CNS penetration
Characteristics of malaria
fever, headache, anemia, splenomegaly
Differentiating btw P. vivax, ovale, falciparum, malariae
P. vivax/ovale: 48 hr cycle with dormant form in liver
P. falciparum- severe, irregluar fever patterns with parasitized RBCs occluding capallaries in the brain, kidneys, and lungs
P malariae: 72 hr cycle
Dx of malaria
blood smear showing trophozoite ring form within RBCs or schizont containing merozoites
Treamtnet for malaria
chloroquine, which blockes heme polymerase. if resistant, use mefloquine or atovaquone/proguanil
if life threatening, use qunidine after testing for G6PD deficiency
vivax and ovale: ad primaquine for the hypnozoite. test for G6PD deficiency
fever and hemolytic anemia in NE US. Asplenia is a risk for severe disease
Ixodes tick (just like for lyme disease).